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of the Afrotropical region

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea; Family: Braconidae)


Apanteles Förster,1862
  Buluka de Saeger,1948
Cotesia Cameron,1891
  Diolcogaster Ashmead,1900

Distatrix Mason,1981

Dodogaster Rousse 2013

Dolichogenidea Viereck,1911

Exoryza Mason, 1981


Exulonyx Mason,1981


Fornicia Brullé,1846

Glyptapanteles Asmead, 1904


Hypomicrogaster Ashmead,1898


Microgaster Latreille,1804

Microplitis Förster,1862
Nyereria Mason, 1981
Parapanteles Ashmead,1900
  Protapanteles Ashmead,1898
  Protomicroplitis Ashmead, 1898
  Semionis Nixon, 1965
Venanides Mason, 1981
Wilkinsonellus Mason, 1981
  Xenogaster Mason, 1981


Solitary or gregararious endoparasitoids (koinobiont) of Lepidoptera larvae.




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Ashmead, W.H. 1900. Notes on some New Zealand and Australian parasitic Hymenoptera with description of new genera and new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 25, 327–360.

Ashmead, W.H. 1904. A list of Hymenoptera of the Philippine Islands with descriptions of new species. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 12, 1–22.

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Cameron, P. 1906. On the Hymenopterous parasites of the mealie stalk borer (Sesamia fusca, Hampson). Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society, 16, 334–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21560382.1905.9526068

Cameron, P. 1911. On a collection of parasitic Hymenoptera (chiefly bred) made by Mr. W.W. Froggatt, F.L.S., in New SouthWales, with descriptions of new genera and species. Part 1. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 36,333–346.

De Saeger, H. 1944. Microgasterinae (Hymenoptera Apocrita). Fam. Braconidae. Exploration du Parc National Albert.Mission G.F. de Witte 1933–1935), 47, 1–342.

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Fernández-Triana, J.L. 2010. Eight new species and an annotated checklist of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Canada and Alaska. Zookeys, 63, 1–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.63.565

Fernández-Triana, J.L., Ward, D.F. and Whitfield, J.B. 2011. Kiwigaster gen. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from NewZealand: the first Microgastrinae with sexual dimorphism in number of antennal segments. Zootaxa, 2932, 24–32.

Fernandez-Triana JL, Whitfield JB, Smith MA, Dapkey T, Hallwachs W, Janzen DH 2016. Review of the world species of Exoryza (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with description of five new species. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 63(2): 195-210. doi: 10.3897/dez.63.8977

Fernandez-Triana J, Beaudin M, van Achterberg K, Agbodzavu MK, Othim STO, Nyamu FW, Fiaboe KKM. 2017. DNA barcodes, expanded distribution, and redescription of Apanteles hemara Nixon, 1965 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), a potential biocontrol species against amaranth leaf-webbers in Africa. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 58: 1–15.


Förster, A. 1862. Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Braconiden. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, 19, 225–288.Giard, A. 1902) Sur un moyen de lutte contre les insectes nuisibles ŕ habitat trčs étendu. Bulletin d'Agriculture Coloniale, 1,21–23.

Granger, C. 1949. Braconides de Madagascar. Académie Malgache, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 428 pp.

Haliday, A.H. 1834. Essay on parasitic Hymenoptera. Entomological Magazine, 2, 225–259.

Kfir, R., Overholt, W.A., Khan, Z.R. & Polaszek, A. 2002. Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa. Annual Review of Entomology, 47, 701–731.

Kurdjumov, N.V. 1912. Hyménoptčres-parasites nouveaux ou peu connus. Revue Russe d'Entomologie, 12, 223–240.

Long, K.D. & van Achterberg, C. 2003. Two new species of the genus Wilkinsonellus Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae:Microgastrinae) from northern Vietnam. Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden, 77, 221–227.

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Mason, W.R.M.. 1981. The polyphyletic nature of Apanteles Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): A phylogeny and reclassification of Microgastrinae. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada. No. 115. 147pp.

Nixon, G.E.J.. 1965. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology series. Supplement 2:1-284.

Nixon, G.E.J. 1976. A revision of the north-western European species of the merula, laeteus, vipio, ultor, ater, butalidis,popularis, carbonarius and validus-groups of Apanteles Förster (Hym.: Braconidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research,65, 687–732.


Olliff, A.S. 1893. Report on a visit to the Clarence River District for the purpose of ascertaining the nature and extent of insectravages in the sugar-cane crop. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 4, 373–386.

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Rincon, C., Bordat, D., Löhr, B. & Dupas, S. 2006. Reproductive isolation and differentiation between five populations ofCotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitoid of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). BiologicalControl, 36, 171–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.07.018

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Shaw, M.R. 2003. Revised synonymy in the genus Cotesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae): The identity of Microgaster vestalis Haliday, 1834, as a senior synonym of Apanteles plutellae Kurdjumov, 1912. Entomologist's Gazette, 54, 187–189.

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Yu D.S., van Achterberg K., Horstmann K. 2011. World Ichneumonoidea 2011. Taxonomy, biology, morphology and distribution. Available from Vancouver, Canada: Taxapad. www.taxapad.com


Photographs © Pascal Rousse.

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2018. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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