HomeWasp classificationExpeditionsLinksFigWebBiodiversity ExplorerPermits


Afrotropical Ichneumonoidea

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)






Koinobiont or idiobiont endoparasitoids or ectoparasitoids of insects (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Rhaphidioptera, Trichoptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera, Isoptera, Embioptera, Neuroptera) or Chelcerata (Araneae and Pseudoscorpionida).


Aguiar AP, Deans AR, Engel MS, Forshage M, Huber JT, Jennings JT, Johnson NF, Lelej AS, Longino JT, Lohrmann V, Miko I. 2013. Order Hymenoptera. In: Zhang, Z.-Q.(Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703: 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.12

Bennett AMR, Cardinal S, Gauld ID, Wahl DB. 2019. Phylogeny of the subfamilies of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 71: 1-156. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.71.32375

Branstetter MG, Childers AK, Cox-Foster D, Hopper KR, Kapheim KM, Toth AL, Worley KC. 2018. Genomes of the Hymenoptera. Current Opinion in Insect Science 25: 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2017.11.008

Broad GR. 2021. Taxonomic changes in Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera), and notes on certain type specimens. Zootaxa 4941: 511–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4941.4.3

Johnson BR, Borowiec ML, Chiu JC, Lee EK, Atallah J, Ward PS. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050

Klopfstein S, Santos BF, Shaw MR, Alvarado M, Bennett AMR, Dal Pos D, Giannotta M, Herrera Florez AF, Karlsson D, Khalaim AI, Lima AR, Alessandro R, Mikó I, Sääksjärvi IE, Shimizu S, Spasojevic T, van Noort S, Vilhelmsen L, Broad GR. 2019. Darwin wasps: a new name heralds renewed efforts to unravel the evolutionary history of Ichneumonidae. Entomological Communications 1: ec01006–ec01006

Peters RS, Krogmann L, Mayer C, Donath A, Gunkel S, Meusemann K, Kozlov A, Podsiadlowski L, Petersen M, Lanfear R, Diez PA. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27:1013-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027

Quicke, D. L. 2014. The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps: Biology, Systematics, Evolution and Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 704 pages.

Quicke, D.L.J. & van Achterberg, C. 1990. Phylogeny of the subfamilies of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen, 258, 1–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1992.tb00068.x

Quicke, D.L.J., Laurenne, N.M., Fitton, M.G. & Broad, G.R. 2009. A thousand and one wasps: a 28S rDNA and morphological phylogeny of the Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) with an investigation into alignment parameter space and elision. Journal of Natural History, 43: 1305–1421.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930902807783

Sharkey, M.J. 1993. Family Braconidae (pp. 362-395). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521–548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Wahl, D.B. 1993. Family ichneumonidae (pp. 395-448). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Yu D.S., van Achterberg, K., Horstmann, K. 2011. World Ichneumonoidea 2011. Taxonomy, biology, morphology and distribution. Available from Vancouver, Canada: Taxapad. www.taxapad.com


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa). Banner image © Vida van der Walt (Pretoria).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2021. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

Copyright 2004-2021 Iziko Museums of South Africa

customisable counter