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Sirex Linnaeus

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Siricoidea; Family: Siricidae)

Sirex Linnaeus 1761.

Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1793


South Africa (introduced). Native to temperate Eurasia and North Africa.


Adult females lay eggs and symbiotic fungal spores into dead or dying trees. Larvae are wood-borers in conifers.


Boissin, E., B. Hurley, M. J. Wingfield, R. Vasaitis, J. Stenlid, C. Davis, P. de Groot, R. Ahumada, A. Carnegie, A. Goldarazena, P. Klasmer, B. Wermelinger & B. Slippers. 2012. Retracing the routes of introduction of invasive species: the case of the Sirex noctilio woodwasp. Molecular Ecology 21: 5728–5744. doi:10.1111/mec.12065.

Foelker, C. J., Standley, C. R., Fierke, M. K., Parry, D. and Whipps, C. M. 2015. Host tissue identification for cryptic hymenopteran parasitoids associated with Sirex noctilio. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. doi: 10.1111/afe.12137

Hurley B.P., Slippers, B. & Wingfield, M.J. 2007. A comparison of control results for the alien invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in the southern hemisphere. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 9: 159–171.

Hurley, B. P., Slippers, J., Wingfield, M. J., Dyer, C. & Slippers, B. 2012. Perception and knowledge of the Sirex woodwasp and other forest pests in South Africa. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 14: 306-316. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2012.00570.x

Ryan, K., de Groot, P. & Smith, S. M. 2011.Evidence of interaction between Sirex noctilio and other species inhabiting the bole of Pinus. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2011.00558.x

Schiff, N. M., Goulet, H., Smith, D. R., Boudreault, C., Wilson, A. D., and Scheffler, B. E. 2012. Siricidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Siricoidea) of the Western Hemisphere. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 21: 305 pp. doi: 10.3752/cjai.2012.21

Slippers, B., Coutinho, T.A., Wingfield, B.D. & Wingfield, M.J. 2003. The genus Amylostereum and its association with woodwasps: a contempary review . South African Journal of Science 99: 70 – 74.

Slippers, B., Wingfield, M.J., Coutinho, T.A. & Wingfield, B.D. 2001. Population structure and possible origin of Amylostereum areolatum in South Africa. Plant Pathology 50: 206 – 210.

Slippers B.,  Wingfield, B.D., Coutinho T.A. & Wingfield M.J. 2002. DNA sequence and RFLP data reflect geographical spread and relationships of Amylostereum areolatum and its insect vectors. Molecular Ecology 11: 1845-1854.

Taylor, J.S. 1962. Sirex noctilio F., a recent introduction in South Africa . Entomologist’s Record 74: 273 – 274 .

Tribe, G.D . 1995. The woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), a pest of Pinus species, now established in South Africa. African Entomology 3: 215 – 217.
Tribe , G.D. & Cillié , J.J . 2004. The spread of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in South African pine plantations and the introduction and establishment of its biological control agents. African Entomology 12: 9 – 17.


THE SIREX WEBSITE: This website serves as a link and resource for the research and forestry community interested in the invasive pest, Sirex noctilio (the Sirex Woodwasp), and its control.


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa)

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the World. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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