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Key to Gonatopus species

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Chrysidoidea; Family: Dryinidae; Subfamily: Gonatopodinae; Genus: Gonatopus)

ClassificationIdentification keys


Key to the species-groups of Gonatopus (females)

Gonatopus femles were divided for convenience by Olmi (1993b), Xu et al. (2013), Olmi & Virla (2014) and Olmi & Xu (2015) into twelve groups on the basis of the following characters:

 

1. Fully winged ...Group 11

- Apterous ...2

2. Enlarged claw without subapical tooth, or with one very small subapical tooth ...3

- Enlarged claw with one large subapical tooth ...6

3. Apex of enlarged claw with group of lamellae ...Group 8

- Apex of enlarged claw without lamellae ...4

4. Pronotum crossed by strong transverse furrow ...Group 7

- Pronotum not crossed by transverse furrow or slightly impressed ...5

5. Palpal formula 6/3 ...Group 12 (not present in Afrotropical region)

- Palpal formula different ...Group 6

6. Pronotum not crossed by transverse impression or slightly impressed ...7

- Pronotum crossed by strong transverse impression ...8

7. Labial palpi 3-segmented ...Group 9 (not present in Afrotropical region)

- Labial palpi 2-segmented ...Group 5

8. Enlarged claw without lamellae, with or without bristles or peg-like setae ...Group 1

- Enlarged claw with lamellae ...9

9. Labial palpus 2-segmented ...10

- Labial palpus 3-segmented ...11

10. Maxillary palpus composed of 2–4 segments ...Group 2

- Maxillary palpus 5-segmented ...Group 10 (not present in Afrotropical region)

11. Maxillary palpus 6-segmented ...Group 4

- Maxillary palpus with 4 or 5 segments ...12

12. Maxillary palpus 5-segmented ...Group 3

- Maxillary palpus 4-segmented ...Group 10 (not present in Afrotropical region)

 

The above groups are distributed in the zoogeographical regions as follows:

Palaearctic: groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11.

Afrotropical: groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11.

Oriental: groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10.

Nearctic: groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12.

Neotropical: groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12.

Australian: groups 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9.

It is not possible to assign males to the above groups.

 

All known Afrotropical species of Gonatopus can be attributed to one of the above nine female groups, except Gonatopus africanus (Benoit 1951) and Gonatopus capicola Kieffer 1913. The attribution of these two species to a distinct group is impossible, because only male specimens are known (Gonatopus africanus (Benoit)), or they have been described on the basis of female type material that is apparently lost (Gonatopus capicola Kieffer) and no further specimens have been collected. For this reason and because the original descriptions are unreliable, they are attributed to an uncertain group (see “incertae sedis” species) (Olmi et al 2019).

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 1

Single African species:

Gonatopus nearcticus (Fenton, 1927)

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 2

Nineteen species are known. Hosts: Fulgoromorpha.

Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 2: key to females

1. Meso-metapleural suture obsolete or incomplete ...2

- Meso-metapleural suture distinct and complete ...13

2. Metanotum with lateral pointed protrusions ...Gonatopus comorensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Metanotum with sides rounded ...3

3. Mesosoma at least partly black ...4

- Mesosoma completely yellow-testaceous, or yellow-reddish, or brown-reddish, or partly yellow-reddish and brown-reddish ...7

4. Pronotum with anterior collar black and disc yellow ...Gonatopus perkinsiellavorus (Benoit)

- Pronotum completely black, or brown, or testaceous ...5

5. Mesoscutum yellow, with anterior margin darkened; antennomere 10 brown ...Gonatopus harteni (Olmi) or Gonatopus festivus Olmi (see remarks)

- Mesoscutum black; antennomere 10 brown, or whitish, or yellow ...6

6. Antennomere 10 whitish or yellow ...Gonatopus pilosoides Olmi

- Antennomere 10 brown ...Gonatopus niassensis Olmi

7. Body very shiny, unsculptured, except propodeal declivity transversely striate ...Gonatopus ceballosi Olmi

- Body at least partly strongly or slightly granulate, or rugose  ...8

8. Head completely yellow-testaceous ...9

- Head brown-black or brown, except occiput, clypeus, mandible and anterior part of frons yellow ...10

9. Top of metapectal-propodeal disc with track of median furrow ...Gonatopus polli (Benoit)

- Top of metapectal-propodeal disc without track of median furrow ...Gonatopus ghanensis Olmi

10. Top and anterior surface of metapectal-propodeal disc rugose and sculptured by irregular striae; head with OL about 3 × as long as POL; frontal line present also in ocellar triangle forming median longitudinal keel ...Gonatopus ntumenensis Olmi

- Top and anterior surface of metapectal-propodeal disc unsculptured or very slightly granulate; head with OL twice or less than twice as long as POL; frontal line not present in ocellar triangle ...11

11. Pronotum showing disc contraction near posterior margin  sides of metanotum less sinuate ...Gonatopus festivus Olmi

- Pronotum not showing disc contraction near posterior margin  sides of metanotum more sinuate ...12

12. Top of metapectal-propodeal disc without track of median longitudinal furrow ...Gonatopus ruens Olmi

- Top of metapectal-propodeal disc with track of median longitudinal furrow ...Gonatopus amoenus Olmi

13. Body at least partly black or brown or brown-reddish ...14

- Body yellow testaceous, or testaceous, or ferruginous, except petiole black; occasionally antenna or metasoma partly or totally brown or black ...17

14. Anterior surface of metapectal-propodeal disc sculptured by many strong longitudinal striae; top of metapectal-propodeal disc with strong median longitudinal furrow; head deeply excavated ...Gonatopus camposensis Olmi

- Anterior surface of metapectal-propodeal disc unsculptured, or granulate, or punctate, never sculptured by striae; top of metapectal-propodeal disc without median longitudinal furrow or with track of median longitudinal furrow; head less excavated ...15

15. Subdistal tooth of enlarged claw larger ...Gonatopus jacksoni Olmi

- Subdistal tooth of enlarged claw smaller ...16

16. Head less excavated  anterior surface of metapectal-propodeal disc very shiny, unsculptured ...Gonatopus acutus (Olmi)

- Head more excavated  anterior surface of metapectal-propodeal disc slightly dull, partly punctate and granulate ...Gonatopus vannoorti Olmi

17. Metanotum excavated behind mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus fisheri Olmi

- Metanotum about coplanar to mesoscutellum ...18

18. Pronotum with transverse impression narrow and less deep  top of metapectal-propodeal disc usually without median furrow  occasionally with track of median longitudinal furrow ...Gonatopus similis Brues

- Pronotum with transverse impression very deep and broad  top of metapectal-propodeal disc usually with strong median furrow  occasionally with track of median longitudinal furrow ...Gonatopus spiracularis (Benoit)

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 3

Fourteen species are known. Hosts: Fulgoromorpha.

Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 3: key to females

1. Enlarged claw with apex very broad ...Gonatopus fuscus (Olmi)

- Enlarged claw with apex tapering, not broad ...2

2. Metapectal-propodeal disc with strong median longitudinal furrow ...3

- Metapectal-propodeal disc without strong median longitudinal furrow ...4

3. Metanotum weakly excavated behind mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus acuminatus (Olmi)

- Metanotum deeply excavated behind mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus nicator Olmi

4. Meso-metapleural suture obsolete (at most slightly visible in posterior half) ...5

- Meso-metapleural suture distinct and complete ...6

5. Metapectal-propodeal disc fusiform; metanotum not protruding laterally, without lateral pointed or rounded protrusion ...Gonatopus ruber Olmi

- Metanotum with two lateral pointed protrusions ...Gonatopus madecassus Olmi

6. Mesoscutum without two lateral pointed protrusions  occasionally with three very small pointed protrusions corresponding to three carinae located on lateral regions of mesoscutum ...7

- Mesoscutum with two strong lateral pointed protrusions ...10

7. Enlarged claw with subdistal tooth located very close to most distal lamella ...Gonatopus scholtzi Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Enlarged claw with subdistal tooth located very far from most distal lamella ...8

8. Metanotum laterally rounded ...Gonatopus robertsoni Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Metanotum laterally with two slightly pointed protrusions ...9

9. Mesosoma testaceous-reddish ...Gonatopus ceres (Olmi)

- Mesosoma mostly black, except mesoscutum mostly yellow, metanotum brown and posterior apex of propodeal declivity yellow ...Gonatopus schwarzorum Guglielmino & Olmi

10. Metapectal-propodeal disc fusiform; metanotum not protruding laterally, without lateral pointed or rounded protrusions ...11

- Metanotum with two lateral pointed or rounded protrusions ...12

11. Mesosoma completely black ...Gonatopus hantamensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Prothorax and mesoscutum testaceous, or brown-reddish; rest of mesosoma black, with distal extremity of propodeal declivity reddish ...Gonatopus cafer Olmi

12. Head with OL 2–3 × as long as POL; mesoscutum very slender, twice as long as broad (length calculated from the anterior margin to imaginary line joining two lateral pointed apophyses of mesoscutum) ...Gonatopus mixtus Olmi

- Head with OL less than twice as long as POL; mesoscutum less slender, about as long as broad (length calculated from anterior margin to imaginary line joining two lateral pointed apophyses of mesoscutum) ...13

13. Head shiny, unsculptured, except frontal line; apex of protarsomere 5 with less than 20 lamellae ...Gonatopus pluvialis Olmi

- Head dull, with many longitudinal striae on frons and many transverse striae on sides of ocelli; apex of protarsomere 5 with more than twenty lamellae ...Gonatopus ruvidus Olmi

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 4

Thirteen species are known. Hosts: Fulgoromorpha.

Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 4: key to females

1. Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity totally or almost totally ferruginous or brown-ferruginous, or testaceous ...2

- Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity totally or almost totally black ...9

2. Head flat ...Gonatopus gazensis Olmi

- Head excavated ...3

3. Metapectal-propodeal disc sculptured by irregular longitudinal keels ...4

- Metapectal-propodeal disc granulate or unsculptured, not sculptured by keels ...6

4. Protarsomere 1 longer than 4 ...Gonatopus karooensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Protarsomere 1 shorter than 4 ...5

5. Head dull, completely granulate; disc of pronotum dull, completely granulate ...Gonatopus subrufulus Olmi

- Head shiny, with frons mostly unsculptured and occiput granulate; disc of pronotum shiny, sculptured by numerous longitudinal striae ...Gonatopus ibayensis Olmi

6. Metapectal-propodeal disc dull, granulate, very sloping anteriorly ...Gonatopus rufulus (Olmi)

- Metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, unsculptured, less sloping anteriorly ...7

7. Mesoscutum with two large lateral pointed apophyses ...Gonatopus mixtus Olmi (see group 3)

- Mesoscutum without lateral pointed apophyses  ...8

8. Mesosoma ferruginous-dark; mesoscutellum almost flat; metanotum very weakly excavated behind mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus tanzanianus Olmi

- Mesosoma yellow-testaceous; mesoscutellum sloping anteriorly; metanotum strongly excavated behind mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus emelyanovi Ponomarenko & Olmi

9. Metanotum about coplanar to mesoscutellum ...10

- Metanotum excavated behind mesoscutellum ...11

10. Apex of enlarged claw very broad  protarsomere 5 with one short row of lamellae  metapectal-propodeal disc only slightly humped ...Gonatopus bellicosus Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Apex of enlarged claw slender  protarsomere 5 with long rows of lamellae  metapectal-propodeal disc very humped ...Gonatopus marojejyanus Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

11. Enlarged claw with apex strongly bent  metapectal-propodeal disc granulate and with few slight longitudinal keels ...Gonatopus owaini Olmi

- Enlarged claw with apex only slightly bent; metapectal-propodeal disc unsculptured ...12

12. Apex of protarsomere 5 very broad and with many lamellae; metapectal-propodeal disc sloping strongly anteriorly; mesoscutum without two lateral pointed apophyses ...Gonatopus danielssoni Olmi

- Apex of protarsomere 5 less broad and with few lamellae; metapectal-propodeal disc sloping weakly anteriorly; mesoscutum with two lateral pointed apophyses ...Gonatopus orangensis Olmi

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 5

Two species are known. Hosts: Fulgoromorpha.

Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 5: key to females

1. Protarsomere 1 slightly longer than 4;  head and mesosoma completely yellow-testaceous ...Gonatopus flavotestaceus Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Protarsomere 1 about twice as long as 4; head brown, except mandible, clypeus and anterior region of frons reddish; mesosoma testaceous-reddish, except pronotum reddish-dark ...Gonatopus pallidior Olmi

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 6

Nine species are known. Hosts: Cicadomorpha.

Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 6: key to females

1. Mesosoma and head yellow-testaceous or reddish ...2

- Mesosoma and head at least partly black or brown ...5

2. Antenna brown or black, except scape testaceous ...Gonatopus mossambicus Olmi

- Antenna totally testaceous ...3

3. Head almost flat ...Gonatopus ochreus (Olmi)

- Head excavated ...4

4. Metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, unsculptured ...Gonatopus vulgaris Olmi

- Metapectal-propodeal disc dull, granulate ...Gonatopus rubripes (Olmi)

5. Head completely flat ...Gonatopus yemenensis Olmi & van Harten

- Head excavated ...6

6. Metapectal-propodeal disc sloping strongly anteriorly ...Gonatopus zairensis (Olmi)

- Metapectal-propodeal disc sloping weakly anteriorly ...7

7. Metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, unsculptured; propodeal declivity, meso- and metapleuron trasversely striate ...8

- Metapectal-propodeal disc dull, granulate; propodeal declivity, meso- and metapleuron granulate or occasionally transversely striate ...9

8. Mesosoma brown-reddish or black-reddish, with mesoscutum yellow ...Gonatopus vulgaris Olmi

- Mesosoma black, including mesoscutum black ...Gonatopus nigrior (Olmi)

9. Propodeal declivity completely granulate, not transversely striate ...Gonatopus afer (Olmi)

- Propodeal declivity transversely striate ...Gonatopus varipes Brues

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 7

Seventy species are known. Hosts:Cicadomorpha (very rarely Fulgoromorpha).

Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 7: key to females

1. Protarsomere 1 approximately twice as long as 4 ...Gonatopus meridionalis (Benoit)

- Protarsomere 1 as long as, or shorter, or slightly longer than 4 ...2

2. Meso-metapleural suture obsolete or slightly distinct and incomplete ...3

- Meso-metapleural suture distinct and complete ...32

3. Mesoscutum very long, approximately 3 × as long as broad ...Gonatopus longiusculus Olmi

- Mesoscutum shorter, less than 3 × as long as broad ...4

4. Mesoscutum with two lateral pointed prominences ...5

- Mesoscutum without lateral pointed prominences ...17

5. Protarsomere 5 with two rows of lamellae; shortest row extending beyond 0.5 × length of protarsomere 5 ...6

- Protarsomere 5 with one row of lamellae or with two rows (then shortest row not extending beyond 0.5 × length of protarsomere 5) ...8

6. Protarsomere 5 with two rows of lamellae beginning in proximal third of protarsomere ...Gonatopus australis (Ceballos)

- Protarsomere 5 with two rows of lamellae situated in distal half of protarsomere ...7

7. Larger species (length more than 2.5 mm), with head and mesosoma partly brown ...Gonatopus griswoldi Olmi

- Smaller species (length less than 2 mm), completely yellow-testaceous, except petiole black ...Gonatopus minutus Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

8. Frons without longitudinal keels (except frontal line) ...9

- Frons with numerous longitudinal keels (in addition to frontal line) ...13

9. Subapical tooth of enlarged claw very large; mesoscutum yellow ...Gonatopus somerseti (Olmi)

- Subapical tooth of enlarged claw small  mesoscutum black or brown or testaceous ...10

10. Metapectal propodeal disc unsculptured ...11

- Metapectal-propodeal disc granulate or sculptured by longitudinal striae ...12

11. Top of metapectal-propodeal disc with slight median longitudinal furrow ...Gonatopus masoalensis Olmi

- Top of metapectal-propodeal disc without median longitudinal furrow ...Gonatopus benoiti Olmi

12. Head flat ...Gonatopus ankaratrus (Ceballos)

- Head strongly excavated ...Gonatopus capensis Brues

13. Metapectal-propodeal disc completely reticulate rugose; transverse striae on propodeal declivity and occasionally on meso- and metapleuron ...14

- Metapectal-propodeal disc differently sculptured (granulate, or unsculptured, or with longitudinal keels, or punctate) ...15

14. Proximal half of enlarged claw slender ...Gonatopus paulyianus Olmi

- Proximal half of enlarged claw very broad ...Gonatopus macua Olmi

15. Head weakly excavated ...Gonatopus pilosipes Brues

- Head distinctly excavated ...16

16. Metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, unsculptured ...Gonatopus guigliae (Benoit)

- Metapectal-propodeal disc dull, with numerous longitudinal keels ...Gonatopus seyrigi (Ceballos)

17. Mesosoma at least partly yellow-testaceous, or testaceous-reddish, occasionally with brown spots ...18

- Mesosoma totally or almost totally black ...27

18. Temple more sticking out ...19

- Temple less sticking out ...22

19. Vertex distinctly excavated ...20

- Vertex almost flat ...21

20. Metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, unsculptured ...Gonatopus rubrithorax (Benoit)

- Metapectal-propodeal disc dull, granulate ...Gonatopus faustae Olmi

21. Protarsomere 5 with one row of lamellae ...Gonatopus mosseli Olmi

- Protarsomere 5 with one row of bristles and one subdistal lamella ...Gonatopus grobbelaari Olmi

22. Body totally yellow-testaceous, or ferruginous, except petiole black ...23

- Body at least partly black, or brown, or dark ...26

23. Metapectal-propodeal disc sloping markedly anteriorly ...24

- Metapectal-propodeal disc sloping weakly anteriorly ...25

24. Protarsomere 5 with one row of lamellae  subapical tooth of enlarged claw situated nearer apex ...Gonatopus ericeti Olmi

- Protarsomere 5 with two rows of lamellae  subapical tooth of enlarged claw situated farther from apex ...Gonatopus mirus Olmi & van Harten

25. Metapectal-propodeal disc more slender  shiny and unsculptured ...Gonatopus hyalinus Olmi

- Metapectal-propodeal disc less slender  dull and granulate ...Gonatopus faustae Olmi

26. Mesoscutellum and metapectal-propodeal disc black, except apex of propodeal-declivity reddish ...Gonatopus ridens Olmi

- Mesoscutellum and metapectal-propodeal disc reddish, or yellow, or testaceous, with black or brown nuances on meso- and metapleuron and occasionally on mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus communis Olmi

27. Propodeal declivity not transversely striate ...28

- Propodeal declivity transversely striate ...29

28. Head almost flat ...Gonatopus luteipes (Benoit)

- Head distinctly excavated ...Gonatopus transvaalensis Olmi

29. Metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, unsculptured ...30

- Metapectal-propodeal disc dull, granulate, or with many slight longitudinal striae ...31

30. Protarsomere 5 with one row of lamellae situated both in proximal and distal half ...Gonatopus bekilyanus (Benoit)

- Protarsomere 5 with one row of lamellae situated in distal half ...Gonatopus natalensis Olmi

31. Protarsomere 5 with one row of lamellae situated both in proximal and distal half ...Gonatopus incognitus Olmi

- Protarsomere 5 with two rows of lamellae situated in distal half ...Gonatopus transvaalensis Olmi

32. Temple with strong sharp carina ...33

- Temple without sharp carina ...35

33. ropodeal declivity granulate, not transversely striate; mesoscutum very long, about 4 × as long as broad ...Gonatopus chiruanus Olmi, Guglielmino, Natha & Nota Alfredo

- Propodeal declivity transversely striate; mesoscutum shorter, about 2–3 × as long as broad ...34

34. Mesoscutum very long, approximately 2.5–3.0 × as long as broad; temple rugose ...Gonatopus leptothorax Ceballos

- Mesoscutum shorter, about twice as long as broad; temple smooth ...Gonatopus fortis Olmi

35. Mesoscutum very long, approximately 2.5–3.0 × as long as broad ...36

- Mesoscutum shorter, twice or less than twice as long as broad ...37

36. Head almost flat ...Gonatopus omanensis Olmi

- Head deeply excavated ...Gonatopus koebergensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

37. Metapectal-propodeal disc with strong median furrow ...38

- Metapectal-propodeal disc without strong median furrow, or only with slight track of median furrow ...46

38. Metanotum with sides rounded ...39

- Metanotum with sides rising to either a rounded or a sharp lateral prominence ...40

39. Mesoscutum without lateral pointed apophyses ...Gonatopus aethiopicus Olmi

- Mesoscutum with two lateral pointed apophyses ...Gonatopus maritimus Olmi

40. Metanotum about coplanar to mesoscutellum ...41

- Metanotum deeply excavated behind mesoscutellum ...43

41. Metanotum flat  mesoscutum very slender, about twice as long as broad  mesosoma brown-reddish ...Gonatopus delvarei Olmi

- Metanotum sloping anteriorly  mesoscutum less slender, slightly longer than broad ...42

42. Enlarged claw with small peg-like setae  mesosoma black ...Gonatopus tananarivei Olmi

- Enlarged claw with very large lamellae  mesosoma testaceous-reddish ...Gonatopus karibibensis Olmi

43. Head almost flat, completely granulate, dull ...Gonatopus okahandjae Olmi

- Head excavated, unsculptured or partly granulate, shiny ...44

44. Protarsomere 5 with lamellae situated in distal half ...Gonatopus armatus Olmi

- Protarsomere 5 with lamellae situated in medial and proximal regions ...45

45. Head and mesosoma almost totally black ...Gonatopus johnsi Olmi

- Head and mesosoma totally testaceous-reddish ...Gonatopus schierli Olmi

46. Mesopleuron with lateral pointed apophysis or prominence ...47

- Mesopleuron without lateral pointed apophysis ...50

47. Mesoscutum with two lateral pointed apophyses ...48

- Mesoscutum without lateral pointed apophyses ...49

48. Mesopleuron with lateral prominence ...Gonatopus camerounensis Olmi

- Mesopleuron with lateral pointed apophysis ...Gonatopus gumovskyi Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

49. Metapectal-propodeal disc unsculptured ...Gonatopus taylori Olmi

- Metapectal-propodeal disc transversely striate ...Gonatopus harinhalai Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

50. Mesoscutum without lateral pointed apophyses ...51

- Mesoscutum with two lateral pointed apophyses  ...58

51. Metanotum not excavated behind mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus shoanus Ponomarenko & Olmi

- Metanotum deeply excavated behind mesoscutellum ...52

52. Protarsomere 5 with apex very long ...Gonatopus cornutus (Benoit)

- Protarsomere 5 with apex shorter ...53

53. Enlarged claw without small subapical tooth ...Gonatopus cuambensis Olmi

- Enlarged claw with small subapical tooth ...54

54. Mesosoma ferruginous ...55

- Mesosoma completely or mostly black ...56

55. Head flat; metapectal-propodeal disc dull, granulate; subapical tooth of enlarged claw situated nearer apex ...Gonatopus martellii Olmi

- Head excavated  metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, unsculptured  subapical tooth of enlarged claw situated farther from apex ...Gonatopus wikstrandae Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

56. Mesopleuron, metapleuron and propodeal declivity granulate, not transversely striate ...Gonatopus zambianus Olmi

- Mesopleuron, metapleuron and propodeal declivity granulate and strongly transversely striate ...57

57. Protarsomere 5 with one row of lamellae ...Gonatopus avontuurensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Protarsomere 5 with two rows of lamellae ...Gonatopus upembanus Olmi

58. Metanotum about coplanar to mesoscutellum or very slightly excavated  ...59

- Metanotum deeply excavated behind mesoscutellum ...62

59. Metapectal-propodeal disc unsculptured ...60

- Metapectal-propodeal disc sculptured by many longitudinal striae, or partly smooth and partly rugose ...61

60. Head and mesosoma yellow-reddish or ferruginous or yellow-testaceous; head shiny, unsculptured ...Gonatopus benoiti Olmi

- Head black, except mandible, clypeus, small area between antennal toruli, malar space and narrow stripe near malar space along orbits testaceous; mesosoma brown-black; head dull, granulate ...Gonatopus ranomafanensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

61. Enlarged claw with subapical tooth farther from apex  lateral pointed apophyses of mesoscutum situated far from mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus sensitivus Olmi

- Enlarged claw with subapical tooth close to apex  lateral pointed apophyses of mesoscutum situated at the border with mesoscutellum ...Gonatopus baginei Olmi

62. Mesosoma completely or almost completely black (in some specimens, apex of propodeal declivity reddish and pronotum partly brown or brown-testaceous) ...63

- Mesosoma reddish-dark, or reddish-light, or yellow-reddish, broadly brown, or brown-reddish ...69

63. Subapical tooth of enlarged claw situated very near apex ...64

- Subapical tooth of enlarged claw situated very far from apex  ...65

64. Enlarged claw long, straight and slender  metanotum longer ...Gonatopus nigropictus Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Enlarged claw shorter and curved  metanotum shorter ...Gonatopus savanensis Olmi

65. Metapectal-propodeal disc dull, with granulate ...Gonatopus operosus Olmi

- Metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, unsculptured, or dull, transversely striate, or sculptured by longitudinal keels  ...66

66. Metanotum with sides protruding; protrusions rounded  metapectal-propodeal disc sculptured by many longitudinal striae ...Gonatopus kanyawarus Olmi, van Noort & Guglielmino

- Metanotum with sides rounded (metapectal-propodeal disc fusiform)  metapectal-propodeal disc completely unsculptured, or sculptured by many transverse or longitudinal striae ...67

67. Metanotum shorter  metapectal-propodeal disc partly sculptured by more or less numerous transverse striae ...Gonatopus tulearensis Olmi

- Metanotum longer  metapectal-propodeal disc completely unsculptured or sculptured by many longitudinal striae ...68

68. Metapectal-propodeal disc shiny, completely unsculptured ...Gonatopus trochantericus (Benoit)

- Metapectal-propodeal disc sculptured by many longitudinal keels, granulate or unsculptured among keels ...Gonatopus rugithorax Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

69. Head flat ...Gonatopus kolyadai Olmi

- Head excavated ...70

70. Propodeal declivity granulate, not transversely striate, or slightly striate, or striate only near posterior extremity; metapectal-propodeal disc granulate ...Gonatopus patrizii Benoit

- Propodeal declivity distinctly completely transversely striate; metapectal-propodeal disc unsculptured, or reticulate rugose, or granulate  ...71

71. Metapectal-propodeal disc unsculptured (or occasionally slightly striate) ...Gonatopus turneri (Benoit)

- Metapectal-propodeal disc dull, reticulate rugose or granulate ...Gonatopus aestivus Olmi

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 8

Two species are known. Hosts: Fulgoromorpha.

Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 8: key to females

1. Meso-metapleural suture obsolete ...Gonatopus paulyi (Olmi)

- Meso-metapleural suture distinct and complete ...Gonatopus maputensis Olmi

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Groups 9, 10 & 12 are absent from the Afrotropical region

 


Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 11

Three species are known. Hosts: Fulgoromorpha.

Afrotropical Gonatopus Group 11: key to females

1. Propodeal declivity with two incomplete longitudinal keels; metapectal-propodeal disc with or without tracks of two median longitudinal keels ...Gonatopus costalis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Propodeal declivity with two complete longitudinal keels; metapectal-propodeal disc with two complete median subparallel longitudinal keels ...2

2. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; metapectal-propodeal disc reticulate rugose, with two median longitudinal keels ...Gonatopus obscurus (Ceballos)

- Notauli incomplete, almost reaching posterior margin of mesoscutum; metapectal-propodeal disc not reticulate rugose, with numerous parallel transverse keels and two median longitudinal keels, in addition to two longitudinal keels situated on lateral regions ...Gonatopus bisulcatus (Benoit)

 


Key to the known Afrotropical Gonatopus males (males are not divided into groups)

1. Notauli absent ...Gonatopus incognitus Olmi

- Notauli at least partly present ...2

2. Notauli complete ...3

- Notauli incomplete ...17

3. Antennomere 3 less than 3 × as long as broad ...4

- Antennomere 3 3 ×, or more than 3 × as long as broad ...10

4. Region of head between lateral ocelli and eyes with ovoidal area anteriorly delimited by strong and high carina ...5

- Region of head between lateral ocelli and eyes with shiny, ovoidal area not delimited anteriorly by strong and high carina ...9

5. Dorsal process of paramere absent; paramere with inner membranous band along entire length ...Gonatopus chiruanus Olmi, Guglielmino, Natha & Nota Alfredo

- Dorsal process of paramere slender and with apex pointed, or large and with apex broadened ...6

6. Dorsal process of paramere large and with apex broadened ...Gonatopus koebergensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Dorsal process of paramere slender and with apex pointed ...7

7. Notauli joined posteriorly, or separate but very close to each other, with minimum distance between notauli shorter than half of lateral ocelli breadth; head and mesoscutum dull, granulate ...Gonatopus ridens Olmi

- Notauli separate posteriorly; minimum distance between notauli as long as breadth of lateral ocelli, or longer than half of lateral ocelli breadth; head and mesoscutum dull and granulate, or shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctures ...8

8. Head punctate, unsculptured among punctures, with shiny, unsculptured, ovoidal area between lateral ocelli and eyes, surrounded anteriorly by very high carina and posteriorly by lower carina continuing on temple and behind ocellar; mesoscutum shiny, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctures ...Gonatopus cornutus (Benoit)

- Head granulate, with dull, granulate, ovoidal area between lateral ocelli and eyes, not surrounded anteriorly by high carina and posteriorly by lower carina continuing on temple and behind ocellar triangle; mesoscutum dull, granulate ...Gonatopus bekilyanus (Benoit)

9. Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity shiny, unsculptured ...Gonatopus okahandjae Olmi

- Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity dull, completely reticulate rugose ...Gonatopus guigliae (Benoit)

10. Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity shiny, almost completely or mostly unsculptured ...11

- Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity dull, completely or mostly reticulate rugose ...12

11. Dorsal process of paramere long and slender ...Gonatopus similis Brues

- Dorsal process of paramere very broad ...Gonatopus faustae Olmi

12. Head black, except ventral side, temple, malar space, clypeus and mandible testaceous-dark; dorsal process of paramere not transverse, reduced to inner membranous band ...Gonatopus maputensis Olmi

- Head black, except mandible testaceous; dorsal process of paramere long, or short and transverse ...13

13. Dorsal process of paramere short, transverse and pointed ...Gonatopus festivus Olmi

- Dorsal process of paramere long or short, in this last case not pointed ...14

14. Dorsal process of paramere slender ...Gonatopus communis Olmi

- Dorsal process of paramere broad ...15

15. Dorsal process of paramere longer and with very pointed apex ...Gonatopus ruens (Olmi)

- Dorsal process of paramere shorter and with apex not pointed ...16

16. Dorsal process of paramere longer, rising from proximal extremity of paramere ...Gonatopus amoenus Olmi

- Dorsal process of paramere apparently shorter because transverse and rising from medial region of paramere ...Gonatopus vannoorti Olmi

17. Clypeus very prominent, sticking out as bill ...Gonatopus harteni (Olmi)

- Clypeus not prominent, not sticking out as bill ...18

18. Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity completely unsculptured ...19

- Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity completely granulate, or at least partly reticulate rugose, or with irregular striae and unsculptured among striae ...22

19. Distal part of 2r-rs&Rs vein approximately as long as proximal part ...Gonatopus africanus (Benoit) (see species incertae sedis)

- Distal part of 2r-rs&Rs vein much longer than proximal part ...20

20. Metapectal-propodeal disc approximately twice as long as propodeal declivity ...Gonatopus nearcticus (Fenton)

- Metapectal-propodeal disc approximately as long as propodeal declivity ...21

21. Dorsal process of paramere longer  occasionally dorsal process short and transverse  in this case its apex pointed ...Gonatopus incognitus Olmi

- Dorsal process of paramere short and transverse, with apex rounded ...Gonatopus rubripes (Olmi)

22. Dorsal process of paramere distally broad ...23

- Dorsal process of paramere slender and with apex narrow ...24

23. Region of head between lateral ocelli and eyes with smooth ovoidal area shiny and unsculptured (area anteriorly surrounded by strong prominent process) ...Gonatopus ochreus (Olmi)

- Head without smooth area between lateral ocelli and eyes surrounded by strong prominent process ...Gonatopus niassensis Olmi

24. Apex of penis deeply cut ...Gonatopus vulgaris Olmi

- Apex of penis not deeply cut ...25

25. Dorsal process of paramere broader ...Gonatopus varipes Brues

- Dorsal process of paramere more slender ...26

26. Dorsal process of paramere with very pointed apex ...Gonatopus acutus (Olmi)

- Dorsal process of paramere with apex not pointed ...27

27. Palpal formula 4/2 ...Gonatopus incognitus Olmi

- Palpal formula 3/2 ...Gonatopus mossambicus Olmi


References

Olmi, M., Copeland, R.S. & van Noort, S. 2019. Dryinidae of the Afrotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 4630: 1–619. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4630.1.1


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. 2021. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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