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Key to Afrotropical Paramblynotus species

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Cynipoidea; Family: Liopteridae)

ClassificationLiopteridae keysCynipoidea keys


1. Mesoscutum, smooth, shiny with only remnants of transverse costae. Median mesoscutal impression present, reaching halfway to anterior margin. The two scutellar foveae each with four subcarinae creating a transverse row of 10 longitudinally elongate subfoveae. Latero-ventral margin of pronotum angled where it meets lateral pronotal carina. F1 of antenna shorter than F2 (Paramblynotus seyrigi species-group) ... Paramblynotus seyrigi

 

Mesoscutum foveate-reticulate, or transversely carinate with foveae set in rows, or with rough discontinuous transverse costae produced into irregularly raised and slightly backward pointing teeth. Median mesoscutal impression, if present, obscured by sculpture. Scutellar foveae usually two in number, or less frequently subdivided into a maximum of 6 subfoveae. Latero-ventral margin of pronotum evenly curved. F1 of antenna equal to or longer than F2 ... 2


2. Pronotal crest gradually raised, medially forming a conspicuous slightly backward pointing ridge-like tooth. Mesoscutum with rough discontinuous transverse costae produced into irregularly raised and slightly backward pointing teeth. Speculum longitudinally costate. Median propodeal area not delimited by lateral propodeal carinae, posteriorly foveate-reticulate (Paramblynotus yangambicolus species-group) ... 3

 

- Pronotal crest flat. Mesoscutum foveate-reticulate or with continuous transverse carinae with foveae set in rows. Speculum smooth, rarely longitudinally costate. Median propodeal area distinctly delimited by lateral propodeal carinae, posteriorly not foveate-reticulate (Paramblynotus trisetosus species-group) ... 7

 


3. Forewing with RS+M vein arising at or very close to base of basal vein (Madagascar) ... 4

 

- Forewing with RS+M vein arising at basal third or mid-way up basal vein (Africa) ... 5

 


 

4. Head and mesosoma black. Abdominal tergite 2 (petiole) dorsally sparsely variolate with confused, weak, longitudinal carinulation; laterally with strong, widely spaced longitudinal carinae. RS+M, basal vein and M+Cu1 nebulous. RS+M arising from base of basal vein, this juncture represented by a pigmented spot. (Female unknown) ... Paramblynotus behara

 

- Head pronotum, mesoscutum and scutellum reddish-brown. Abdominal tergite 2 (petiole) densely longitudinally carinate. RS+M, basal vein and M+Cu1 distinct. RS+M arising slightly above base of basal vein. (Female T8 with two excavations, a smaller circular one surrounding the spiracle and a second larger oval one adjacent to the first and extending to posterior margin) ... Paramblynotus zohy

 


5. Body length about 4 mm. Body colour entrirely dark. Eyes prominent, protruding distinctly beyond genae. Median frontal carina almost reaching clypeus. Antennal scrobes rugose. Speculum distinctly longitudinally carinate. Upper mesopleuron foveate-reticulate. Mesoscutellum sloped posteriorly. Wings entirely transparent. Metasoma somewhat, but not strongly, compressed laterally. Metasomal T6 almost about the same size as the three preceding tergites. Metasomal sterna 4-6 entirely covered by sternum 3 ... Paramblynotus mixtus

 

- Body length about 610 mm. Head and mesosoma dark, metasoma yellow to brown. Eyes not protruding distinctly beyond genae. Median frontal carina absent in lower face. Antennal scrobes entirely longitudinally carinate. Speculum very finely and superficially carinate. Upper mesopleuron entirely longitudinally costate. Mesoscutellum raised posteriorly, forming a flat dorsal surface. Forewing evenly ferruginous with darker marginal cell and a dark narrow strip along anterior-interior margin of the first submarginal cell. Metasoma strongly compressed laterally. Metasomal T6 distinctly larger than any of the 3 preceding tergites. Metasomal sterna 4-6 exposed, not covered by sternum 3 ... 6

 


6. Face evenly curved in lateral view. Genae ventrally strongly expanded posteriorly. Median mesopleural impression distinct. Lower mesopleuron densely punctate with pubescence. Apical teeth of metatibia rounded apically; first metatarsomere 2.0X length of remaining 4 metatarsomeres combined ... Paramblynotus alveolatus

 

- Face distinctly raised medially and curved inward ventrally in lateral view. Median mesopleural impression usually obscured by extension of longitudinal carinae in upper mesopleuron. Lower mesopleuron glabrate and sparsely punctate with sparse pubscence. Apical teeth of metatibia pointed apically; first metatarsomere 1.5X length of remaining 4 metatarsomeres combined ... Paramblynotus yangambicolus 

 


7. Head compressed longitudinally; occiput not concave in dorsal view. Mesoscutum densely foveate, without transverse carinae ... Paramblynotus prinslooi

 

- Head not compressed longitudinally; occiput distinctly concave in dorsal view. Mesoscutum more or less foveate-reticulate, with or without transverse carinae ... 8

 


8. Median frontal carina absent. T6 of female metasoma the largest and T8 distinctly exposed. Median propodeal area without a strong transverse carina ... 9

 

- Median frontal carina present (may only be weakly represented between toruli). T6 of female metasoma not always the largest; if T6 the largest, then T8 is not exposed. Median propodeal area usually with a strong transverse carina. Occasionally variations occur, but never come in combination of features as the above collate ... 13

 


9. Forewing entirely clear ... 10

 

- Forewing at least ferruginous in marginal cell ... 11

 


10. Antennae of female with 11 flagellomeres; apical flagellomere less than twice as long as subapical flagellomere. Pronotal crest medially not raised into a triangular process. Metasoma black ... Paramblynotus nigricornis

 

- Antennae of female with 10 flagellomeres; apical flagellomere longer than twice as long as subapical flagellomere. Pronotal crest medially raised into a small but distinct triangular process. Metasoma brown ... Paramblynotus claripennis

 


11. Antennal scrobes longitudinally carinate in upper part and glabrous in lower part. Upper mesopleuron glabrous, smooth, shiny. Metasoma black ... Paramblynotus samiatus

 

- Antennal scrobes longitudinally carinate entirely. Upper mesopleuron foveate to rugose. Metasoma brown ... 12

 


12. Vertex longitudinally carinate laterally. Pronotal crest medially raised into a small, distinct rounded triangular process. Scutellar foveae without submedian carinae ... Paramblynotus maculipennis

 

- Vertex foveate-reticulate entirely without longitudinal carination. Pronotal crest smoothly flat, without triangular process. Scutellar foveae subdivided by distinct submedian carinae ... Paramblynotus townesorum

 


13. Distance between posterior ocelli at most twice as large as the distance between posterior ocellus and eye. Metasomal T5 of female normal, T6 the largest; T7 exposed, almost entirely covering T8 ... 14

 

- Distance between posterior ocelli at least three times the distance between posterior ocellus and eye. Metasomal T5 of female dorsally expanded, being the largest (at least so dorsally); T7 is largely or entirely covered by T6; T8 exposed ... 28

 


14. Female flagellum distinctly thicker toward apex; median flagellomeres not or slightly constricted toward ends. Antennae with distal flagellomeres 13 black, contrasting to the rest, which are yellow-orange ... 15

 

- Female flagellum not distinctly thicker toward apex; median flagellomeres distinctly constricted toward ends. Antennae yellow or gradually becoming somewhat darker toward apex, but never with contrasting colors between distal and proximal flagellomeres ... 19

 


15. Wings with infuscate patch covering submarginal and marginal cells and extending distally slightly beyond vein RS ... Paramblynotus ruvubuensis

 

- Wings clear ... 16

 


16. Metacoxae ventrally expanded to form a triangular lobular process ... Paramblynotus coxatus

 

- Metacoxae ventrally not expanded to form a triangular lobular process ... 17

 


17. Antennae with apical 3 flagellomeres black. Antennal scrobes finely punctate and without longitudinal carinae posteriorly ... Paramblynotus parinari

 

- Antennae with either the apical or apical 2 flagellomeres dark-brown to black. Antennal scrobes heavily and densely punctate with longitudinal carinae posteriorly ... 18

 


18. Female flagellum with terminal two segments usually dark brown; T9 without dense brush of setae ... Paramblynotus fuscapiculus

 

- Female flagellum usually with only terminal segment darkened (occasionally blending into penultimate segment); female T9 with a distinct brush of setae present, engulfing ovipositor ... Paramblynotus alexandriensis

 


19. Dorsal surface of head between toruli and posterior margin of lateral ocelli mostly smooth, shiny with lateral carina of antennal scrobe bound on both sides by smooth areas, and sub-confluent with genal carina ... Paramblynotus matele

 

- Dorsal surface of head between toruli and posterior margin of lateral ocelli sculptured or with diagonal carina, except for antennal scrobes, which may be smooth; lateral carina of antennal scrobe interrupted on vertex and not joining genal carina ... 20

 


20. Ocellar plate of head not defined by lateral carinae, and without a small, triangular glabrous area beneath anterior ocellus ... Paramblynotus trisetosus

 

- Ocellar plate of head well defined by lateral carinae, with a small, triangular glabrous area beneath anterior ocellus ... 21

 


21. Vertex with distinct longitudinal carination ... 22

 

- Vertex without distinct longitudinal carination ... 26

 


22. Median frontal carina almost extending to clypeus. Ocellar plate either with a row of relatively uniform, large foveae along the lateral carinae delimiting the plate or delimited with two parallel carinae ... 23

 

- Median frontal carina not or slightly extending in lower face. Ocellar plate delimited only by a simple lateral carina ... 24

 


23. Ocellar plate with a row of relatively uniform, large foveae along the lateral carinae delimiting the plate ... Paramblynotus carinatus

 

- Ocellar plate delimited by two simple parallel lateral carinae ... Paramblynotus bayangensis

 


24. Lateral surface of pronotum longitudinally costate in lower part. Lateral propodeal carinae medially strongly curved. Nucha dorsally longitudinally carinate ... Paramblynotus kekenboschi

 

- Lateral surface of pronotum without longitudinal costa in lower part. Lateral propodeal carinae nearly parallel, if strongly curved then nucha dorsally glabrate ... 25

 


25. Lateral propodeal carinae medially strongly curved ... Paramblynotus dzangasangha

 

- Lateral propodeal carinae nearly parallel ... Paramblynotus zairensis

 


26. Median frontal carina not distinctly extending in lower face. Head and mesosoma black. Rs and Rs+M veins of forewing distinct and brown in color ... Paramblynotus jacksoni

 

- Median frontal carina distinctly extending to middle of lower face. Head and mesosoma brown to dark brown. Rs and Rs+M veins of forewing reduced and pale in color ... 27

 


27. Antennal scrobes not distinctly depressed. Mesoscutum foveate-reticulate. Head, pronotum, mesoscutum, and mesoscutellum dark brown. Antenna yellow. Lateral occipital carinae well developed and crestlike. Median propodeal area glabrate ... Paramblynotus cameroonensis

 

- Antennal scrobes distinctly depressed. Mesoscutum transversely costate with foveae set in between. Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and mesoscutellum reddish brown. Antenna black, except basal two segments yellow. Lateral occipital carinae not crestlike. Median propodeal area areolate-reticulate ... Paramblynotus rwandensis

 


28. Wings slightly and evenly tinted ... Paramblynotus immaculatus

 

- Wings with large brown to dark brown macula ... 29

 


29. Upper mesopleuron foveate-rugose ... Paramblynotus minutus

 

- Upper mesopleuron glabrous ... 30

 


30. Vertex diagonally carinate entirely or heavily punctate medially and diagonally carinate laterally ... 31

 

- Vertex generally glabrate to glabrous with sparse punctures, and sometimes slightly rugose laterally ... 32

 


31. Vertex entirely diagonally carinate. Forewing clear basally and distally with a broad medial smoky band across the marginal and submarginal cells. Metasomal T7 of female almost covered by T6 ... Paramblynotus vannoorti

 

- Vertex heavily punctate medially and diagonally carinate laterally. Forewing clear in distal two-fifths and ferruginous basally. Metasomal T7 of female distinctly exposed ... Paramblynotus scalptus

 


32. Lateral propodeal carinae straight and percurrent; medial propodeal area with one straight and percurrent longitudinal carina ... Paramblynotus diminutus

 

- Lateral propodeal carinae discontinuous, medially interrupted by a large fovea; medial propodeal area with more than one non percurrent longitudinal carinae ... 33

 


33. Forewing ferruginous only medially, and clear both proximately and distally. Metasomal T7 of female only slightly exposed, only 1:15 as long as T6 as measured medially on lateral sides ... Paramblynotus angolensis

 

- Forewing clear only distally, and ferruginous in basal two-thirds. Metasomal T7 distinctly visible, about 1:2.5as long as T6 as measured along middle of lateral sides ... Paramblynotus antistatus


References

Liu, Z, Ronquist, F. & Nordlander, G. 2007. The cynipoid genus Paramblynotus: revision, phylogeny, and historical biogeography (Hymenoptera, Liopteridae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 304: 1-151.

Quinlan, J. 1979. A revisionary classification of the Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) of the Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region. Aspicerinae (Figitidae) and Oberthuerellinae (Liopteridae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology) 39: 85-133.

Ronquist, F. 1995. Phylogeny and classification of the Liopteridae, an archaic group of cynipoid wasps (Hymenoptera). Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 46: 1-74.

van Noort, S. & Buffington, M.L. 2013. Revision of the Afrotropical Mayrellinae (Cynipoidea, Liopteridae), with the first record of Paramblynotus from Madagascar. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 31: 1-64.

van Noort, S, Buffington ML & Forshage, M. 2015. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). ZooKeys 493: 1-176. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.493.6353

Credits

Photographs Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. 2021. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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