1. Metapleuron with a large patch of fine setae
immediately above the hind coxa; scape and legs bright yellow (Fig. 58)
(males similarly setose) ... 2
─ Metapleuron without or with only scattered sparse setae above the hind
coxa (Figs 64, 62); scape and legs darker (Fig. 58) ... 3
2. Gena with dense white, somewhat thickened pilosity (Fig. 58);
posterior propodeal margin with distinct angular corner
(Fig. 57); patch of setae above hind coxa predominantly oriented
posteriorly (Fig. 60); mesoscutum sculptured throughout
(Fig. 57) ...
─ Gena with sparse, brown, thin pilosity (Fig.
48); posterior propodeal margin
appearing rounded and without truncate margin, with
only extremely short straight edge (Fig. 45); patch of setae above hind coxa predominantly oriented ventrally (Fig. 46); mesoscutum with a narrow strip of obliterated sculpture along humeral
margin (Fig. 45) ...
3. Lateral T2–T5 with anterior half glabrous, posterior half with dense,
thick, white setae (Figs 68, 80) ... 4
─ T2–T5 laterally with pilosity more or less evenly distributed
throughout, pilosity frequently sparse, and most often thin
and brown (Figs 62, 98) ... 5
4. Metasoma narrow (Fig. 67); sculpture of S3–S6 fine, relatively
compact and predominantly longitudinal (Fig. 72); S3
medially sculptured more or less throughout, at most with a thin band of
obliterated sculpture along midline (Fig. 72); S2
felt field extremely reduced, pinch-like and not strongly elevated; scape bright yellow; body often with metasoma lighter
(brown) than mesosoma ...
─ Metasoma broad (Fig. 79); sculpture of S3–S6 longitudinal but
somewhat irregular, particularly at base of S2 which is rugulose, with larger gaps between interstices (Fig. 84); S3 medially
smooth, with sculpture more or less absent throughout
(Fig. 84); S2 felt field well developed and elevated on a keel-like
projection; scape dark golden yellow; body often
concolorous and dark brown throughout ...
5. Gena in lateral view narrow, with three well-defined carinae present
(orbital, genal, occipital, Fig. 102: orbc, gc, occ) at
narrowest point, and frequently genal well developed throughout; gena
with sparse, shorter and usually brown but
sometimes off-white setae whose tips are not typically overlapping;
never with fine pilosity at base of lateral T1 (Fig. 97) (eye in
lateral view large) ... 6
─ Gena in lateral view broad or without a single distinctly larger genal
carina between orbital and occipital carinae (Fig. 89); gena with thick white setae whose tips may or may not overlap
adjacent setae; often with micropilosity at base of
lateral T1 (Fig. 85) ... 7
6. Pilosity on the pronotal shoulder, mesonotum, and lateral gena
completely white (Figs 39, 40); reticulations of the
mesoscutum relatively fine and somewhat more dense (Fig. 39); villus
elongate, narrow, and somewhat curved ventrally;
scape dark brown; mesoscutum with only slight bulge anteromedially,
sculpture not composed of large cells; notauli
percurrent, edges faint but clearly present (South Africa) ...
─ Pilosity on the mesoscutum brown, on gena white or brown, on pronotal
shoulder white and brown; reticulations of the
mesoscutum relatively robust, and larger (Fig. 99); villus variably
developed, but often somewhat thicker (Fig. 100);
scape yellow or brown, only rarely dark brown (these individuals large
and dark) (widespread; there are three general forms
that key here, see Comments) ...
7. Pronotal nucha smooth throughout, nearly glabrous (Fig. 87, pn);
mesoscutum more or less flat; dorsal head between
lateral ocelli with some very slightly polished and bulging areas with
irregular microsculpturing typically in the form of
punctures; scape yellow in basal, becoming brown towards apex, rarely
completely yellow and then legs beyond coxae
concolorous throughout ...
─ Pronotal nucha with at most a small smooth and glabrous patch
anteriorly, if small smooth patch present then bounded
laterally with slight transverse sculpture that fades medially; dorsal
head between lateral ocelli variably developed, but
typically sculptured throughout; mesoscutum usually bulging slightly in
anterior third; scape entirely yellow or nearly
entirely brown with at most slightly yellow base or apex ... 8
8. Pilosity of dorsal pronotal shoulder short and thicker, predominantly
brown, concolorous with dorsal mesonotal setae
(Fig. 51); mesonotum very robustly sculptured, with large cells (Fig. 51); gena in lateral view very broad (Central African
Republic, single female) ...
─ Pilosity of dorsal pronotal shoulder elongate, predominantly white or
off-white, typically lighter than dorsal mesonotal
setae, often distinctly so; mesonotum variously sculptured, with smaller
more compact cells; gena in lateral view of
moderate width ... 9
9. Frons below anterior ocellus with brown pilosity continuing to near
lower margin of eye, pilosity below this white (Figs. 93 &95); A3 bright yellow; pilosity of frons somewhat sparse, setae thick,
and slightly truncate (Figs. 93 & 95); (frons somewhat
narrowed between eyes; metasoma relatively depressed; Ivory Coast) ...
─ Frons below anterior ocellus at most with few brown setae immediately
adjacent to ocellus, setae otherwise white (Figs. 63 & 65); A3 brown to dark brown; pilosity of frons variously
developed, setae truncate or pointed ... 10
10. Gena with dense, bushy pilosity (Fig. 78); eye bulging towards
anterior (Figs 75, 78); A1 yellow, A3 onwards light
brown to brown (T3 and often T2 with tendency for more reticulation in
─ Genal pilosity not distinctly bushy; eye not distinctly bulging in
lateral view; A1 yellow or brown, A3 onwards varying ...
11. Sculpture of face relatively fine, with dorsoventral trend, with
large interstices between carinae (Fig. 63); sculpture of mesonotum well-impressed, fine, somewhat longitudinal, particularly on
medial mesoscutellum (Fig. 65); scape brown
(villus often slightly concave ventrally and relatively narrow; head ovoid; sculpture of lateral margins of metasomal tergites very slightly obliterated or smoothed in parts;
darker individuals) ...
─ Sculpture of the face variable, but in general reticulate, without
dorsoventral trend, and typically somewhat denser (Fig. 35); sculpture of mesonotum moderately impressed, relatively densely
reticulate (Fig. 36); scape brown or yellow; villus
variously formed (see Comments for information on the several
morphotypes presently included in this relatively
polymorphic species) ...