HomeWasp classificationExpeditionsLinksFigWebBiodiversity ExplorerPermits

Key to Encyrtidae genera

Dichotomous key to encyrtid genera of Africa & Madagascar (Prinsloo & Annecke, 1979)

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Chalcidoidea; Family: Encyrtidae)

Keys home page

1 Tarsi four-segmented........ 2
Tarsi five-segmented........ 3
2 Marginal cilia of fore wing extremely long (fig. 2); axillae widely separated mesally, indistinct, sometimes rudimentary (fig. 3); antennal funicle five or six-segmented........ ANTHEMUS HOWARD, 1896
Marginal fringe of fore wing relatively short (cf. fig. 4), the longest cilia at most not much longer than setae on submarginal vein; axillae distinct, meeting mesally; antenna with two to four funicle segments........ ARRHENOPHAGUS AURIVILLIUS, 1888
3 Fore wing with stigmal, marginal and postmarginal veins obsolete, represented by an infuscated patch (fig. 4); head with membranous interruptions in integument as in fig. 5................ARRHENOPHAGOIDEA Girault, 1915
Fore wing venation at least partly developed; head without membranous interruptions as above........ 4
4 Posterior margin of mesoseutum with two round projections, each fitting into an indentation in anterior margin of axillae (fig. 6); fore wing with marginal cilia unusually long along caudal wing margin (fig. 7); parasitic in Tettigometridae................PSYLLECHTHRUS GHESQUIERE, 1958
Antenna six-segmented (fig. 8) Mesonotum not especially modified as above; fore wing otherwise; not parasitic in Tettigometridae........ 5
5 Fore femur and tibia greatly swollen, the apex of the latter with two blunt spines in addition to the strigil; antenna eleven-segmented, the segments of pedicel, funicle and club similar in shape; head and body hardly encyrtiform (fig. 9)........ SANGHALIA RISBEC, 1955
Fore femur and tibia at most slightly swollen, the latter without spines; antenna otherwise, usually clavate................6
6 Antennal funicle with five or fewer segments........ 7
Funicle six or seven-segmented........ 16
7 Antenna (fig. 10) in profile foliaceously flattened and expanded (Antennal club not segmented, the funicle with 3-5 segments, all strongly transverse; mandible bidentate; body brown to blackish-brown in colour; parasitic in Pseudococeidae)................TROPIDOPHRYNE COMPERE, 1931
Antenna not foliaceously flattened, at most the scape expanded ventrally........ 8
8 Funicle four-segmented........ 9
Funicle five-segmented........ 10
9 Apex of scutellum with two lamelliforrn setae (cf. figs 27. 28); fore wing distinctly infuscated, patterned; body flattened dorsoventrally; parasitic in Diaspididae................PSEUDHOMALOPODA GIRAULT, 1915
Scutellum without lamelliform setae; fore wing hyaline; body not flattened dorsoventrally; parasitic in aculeate Hymenoptera........ XYLENCYRTUS ANNECKE, 1968
10 Antennal club not divided. (Body blackish, the scutellum metallic green; marginal and postmarginal veins of forc wing punctiform or very short; parapsidal sulci present; parasitic in Psyllidae)................TRECHNITES THOMSON, 1876
Antennal club two or three-segmented........ 11
11 Antennal club two-segmented. (Maxillary palpi each with two segments, the labial not segmented; mandible tridentate (fig. 11), the upper tooth retracted; parasitic in Pseudococcidae)................TIMBERLAKIA MERCET, 1925
Club three-segmented........ 12
12 Ovipositor protruding at apex of metasoma........ 13
Ovipositor not or hardly protruding........ 14
13 Antennal club white; maxillary palpi each with four segments, the labial with three segments. Parasitic in Pseudococcidae................PSEUDAPHYCUS CLAUSEN, 1915
Antennal club not white; maxillary palpi each with four segments, the labial with two segments. Parasitic in Pseudococcidae................ ACEROPHAGUS SMITH, 1880
14 Mandible bidentate; maxillary palpi each with two segments, the labial not segmented; paratergites present; parasitic in Pseudococcidae. Male antenna ramose, the rami borne on funicle segments I-IV................TETRACNEMOIDEA HOWARD, 1898
Mandible with more than two teeth; palpi different; paratergites absent; not parasitic in Pseudococcidae................15
15 Head and body dark brown to blackish-brown, non-metallic except for frontovertex which may have a very slight metallic tinge; parasitic in aculeate Hymenoptera................XYLENCYRTUS ANNECKE, 1968
Head and body dominantly black, the scutellum brilliant metallic green in colour; parasitic in Psyllidae........ TRECHNITES THOMSON, 1876
16 Hind tibia foliaceously flattened (fig. 12)........ 17
Hind tibia not or only slightly flattened................ 18
17 Antennal club three-segmented; mandible with three small teeth (fig. 13); parasitic in Cicadellidae. Male antenna with six rami (fig. 14)........ NEOCLADIA PERKINS, 1906
Club not segmented; mandible with a single tooth; parasitic in Cercopidae........ CARABUNIA WATERSTON, 1928
18 Wings greatly reduced................19
Wings normally developed........ 25
19 Scutellum with a flange or lamella (fig. 15), in profile this flange shows as a thin, flat, caudal projection of the apex of scutellum................20
Scutellum without a flange................21
20 Mandible with two acute teeth; parasitic in Pseudococcidae........ ERICYDNUS WALKER, 1837
Mandible with three teeth; parasitic in Coccidae........ PARAPHAENODISCUS GIRAULT, 191 5
21 Antenna nine-segmented, the club not segmented; mandible bidentate; parasitic in Pseudococcidae. Male antenna six-segmented, segments II - V each with a ramus........ TETRACNEMUS WESTWOOD, 1837
Antenna eleven-segmented, the club with three segments; mandible otherwise; not parasitic in Pseudococcidae................22
22 Scutellum with a semi-erect tuft of bristles, these strong bristles rarely scattered and not forming a distinct tuft........................23
Scutellar tuft of bristles absent........ 24
 23 Mandible edentate, broadly rounded apically (fig. 16); gonostyli (3rd valvulae) absent................ENCYRTUS LATREILLE, 1809
Mandible tridentate; gonostyli present........ DIVERSINERVUS SILVESTRI,........1915
24 Apterous, or wings represented by a stub........ METAPHYCUS MERCET, 19 17
Fore wing reduced in size, but with venation distinct (fig. 17)........ NEOCOCCIDENCYRTUS COMPERE, 1928
25 Dorsum of scutellum with a longitudinal, inconspicuous, median keel................PENTELlCUS HOWARD, 1895
Head and thorax pitted; antennal club three-segmented, obliquely truncate apically. Scutellum without a median keel................26
26 Head with a horn-like protuberance jutting from middle of face just below antennal Insertions........ RHINOENCYRTUS MERCET, 1918
Head without facial protuberance................ 27
27 Fore wing with stigmal vein branching away before venation reaches cephalic wing margin (figs 18- 22); postmarginal vein never reaching cephalic edge of wing................28
Fore wing venation normal, at most marginal vein punctiform (figs 34, 63, 82, 89); or rarely, if marginal vein absent, then postmarginal touches edge of wing (fig. 80)................32
28 Anterior margin of frontovertex produced to form a prominent ridge that overhangs upper limits of scrobes; mandibles diminutive................AMlRA GIRAULT, 1913
Frontovertex rounded on to face, without an anterior ledge; mandibles relatively large, well developed........ 29
29 Antennal scrobes sulcate, impressed on face as an inverted V, their lateral margins sharply angled (fig. 23). Male and female antennae identical in shape and segmentation; parasitic in Aclerdidae................ALLENCYRTUS ANNECKE & MYNHARDT, 1973
Antennal scrobes otherwise........ 30
30 Antennal club three-segmented; mandible edentate, broadly rounded apically (fig. 24); parasitic in Coccidae and Stictococcidae........ AETHOGNATHUS SILVESTRI, 1915
Antennal club not segmented, obliquely truncate; mandible tridentate; not parasitic in scale insects........ 31
31 Frontovertex and face with large pits, each with a strong metallic lustre; antennal scape (fig. 25) strongly expanded ventrally; parasitic in eggs of spiders................PROLEUROCERUS FERRIERE, 1935
Frontovertex at most finely punctate, non-metallic; antennal scape at most slightly expanded ventrally; parasitic in Neuroptera nymphs........ ISODROMUS HOWARD, 1887
32 Scutellum with a semi-erect tuft of bristles, these strong bristles rarely scattered and not forming a distinct tuft................ 33
Scutellum without a tuft of bristles, the setae recumbent, except for one subapical pair which is sometimes present................37
33 Head elongate in dorsal view, longer than wide or almost so, the greater part of each eye placed dorsally; mesoscutum (fig. 26) usually with a tuft of coarse bristles, but this tuft lacking in some species........ DIVERSINERVUS SILVESTRI, 1915
Head otherwisE; mesoscutum never with a tuft of bristles................34
34 Antenna enlarged, flattened, the club two-segmented, very large, almost as long as entire funicle; mandible bidentate; parasitic in Pseudococcidae. Head and body generally smooth and polished, brilliantly metallic in colour........ CHRYSOPLATYCERUS ASHMEAD, 1889
Antenna not broadened and flattened, the club three-segmented; mandibles different; not parasitic in mealybugs................ 35
35 Mandible edentate (fig. 16), broadly rounded apically; gonostyli absent; primary parasitoids of Coccidae........ ENCYRTUS LATREILLE, 1809
Mandible otherwise; gonostyli present; usually hyperparasitoids................36
36 Ovipositor not or only slightly exserted at apex of metasoma........ CHEILONEURUS WESTWOOD, 1833
Ovipositor protruding strongly, by about one-half length of metasoma. Metasoma usually truncate apically................PROCHILONEURUS SILVESTRI, 1915
37 Apex of scutellum with a pair of lamelliform setae (figs 27, 28)........ 38
Scutellum without a pair of lamelliform setae........ 39
38 Antenna (fig. 29) broadened and flattened, the funicle segments strongly transverse; eyes margined dorsally with white; fronto-occipital margin of head without a pair of lamelliform setae. Parasitic in Diaspididae................COMPERIELLA HOWARD, 1906
Antenna not broadened and flattened; eyes not margined with white; fronto-occipital margin with a pair of small lamelliform setae. Parasitic in Diaspididae................HABROLEPIS FOERSTER, 1856
39 Submarginal vein of fore wing with a subtriangular expansion (figs 30, 34) in its apical one-third, this expansion usually bearing a single strong seta........ 40
Submarginal vein without a triangular expansion................43
40 Junction of frontovertex and face forming a transverse ledge above scrobes (fig. 35); antennal scape broadly expanded ventrally................41
Frontovertex rounded on to face, not forming a ledge; antenna slender, the scape at most slightly expanded ventrally................42
41 Antenna entirely broadened and Aattened (fig. 31 ); fore wing with a characteristic pattern of radiating dark bands (fig. 32); head and body black with strong metallic refringence; presumed hyperparasitoids of Coccidae........ CERAPTEROCERUS WESTWOOD, 1833
Antenna not broadened and flattened except for scape (fig. 33); fore wing (fig. 34) infuscated, but without distinct patterns as above; head and body dominantly brownish, without strong metallic refringence; primary parasitoids of Asterolecaniidae. Head as in fig. 35........ MAYRENCYRTUS HINCKS, 1944
42 Mesoscutum with incomplete parapsidal sulci (fig. 36); maxillary and labial palpi each two-segmented; paratergites present; parasitic in Pseudococcidae........ PAURIDIA TIMBERLAKE, 1919
Mesoscutum without parapsidal sulci; maxillary palpi each with four segments, the labial with three; paratergites absent; parasitic in Diaspididae........ PROTYNDARICHUS MERCET,........1922
43 Mandible with only two acute or subacute teeth (figs 37, 38). Paratergites (fig. 39) usually present, plainly visible in cleared, slide-mounted specimens; speculum of fore wing usually lacking a row of coarse, spine-like setae along outer edge of speculum; cercal plates often advanced to a level near base of metasoma; exclusively parasitic in Pseudococcidae................120
Mandible otherwise, never only with two more or less pointed teeth........ 44
44 Entire fore wing, or part of it, distinctly infuscated, the infuscation rarely restricted to an area beneath the venation........ 45
Fore wing entirely hyaline, or very faimly and inconspicuously infuscated, the infuscation then usually only visible if wing held against a white background........ 73
45 Fore wing with a conspicuous incision in cephalic wing margin at distal end of submarginal vein (fig. 40)........ EUGAHANIA MERCET, 1926
Fore wing without an incision in cephalic margin................46
46 Scutellum with a posterior flange or lamella (fig. 15); in profile this flange shows as a thin flat caudal projection of the scutellum................47
Scutellum without a marginal flange, the posterior margin rarely forming a very short lip........ 49
47 Antennal club white; gonostyli absent; club large, much longer than the distal three funicle segments together; parasitic in Lepidoptera eggs. Antenna as in fig. 41................HESPERENCYRTUS ANNECKE, 1971
Antennal club not white; gonostyli present; club about as long as the distal three funicle segments together; not parasitic in Lepidoptera........ 48
48 Frontovertex and face with numerous large pits, each brilliantly metallic green in colour........ DISCODES FOERSTER, 1856
Head at most with fine punctations. Orange-brown to dark brown, rarely black, species, at most weakly refringent; fore wing strongly and uniformly infuscated from base to near apex; usually parasitic in Pulvinaria spp. on grass................PARAPHAENODISCUS GIRAULT, 1915
49 Stigmal vein of fore wing placed a lmost at right angle to postmarginal vein (fig. 42). Fore wing infuscated with contrasting hyaline patches as in fig. 42; parasitic in Lacciferidae and Coccidae................RUANDELLA RISBEC, 1957
Angle between stigmal and postmarginal veins much smaller, usually strongly acute........ 50
50 Mandible with four teeth (fig. 43). Body somewhat flattened dorsoventrally; head subtriangular in lateral view, the face a little inflexed; exclusively parasitic in Diaspididae........ ADELENCYRTUS ASHMEAD, 1900
Mandible otherwise........ 51
51 Antennal club white, usually obliquely truncate apically................52
Antennal club darker in colour, seldom obliquely truncate apically................55
52 Antennal club three-segmented; not parasitic in Coleoptera........ 53
Antennal dub not segmented, rarely with faint traces of one or two septa on one side of the club; parasitic in Coleoptera........ 54
53 Antennal scape expanded ventrally (fig. 44); hcad and body strongly metallic in colour, the head and thorax usually covered with silvery-white setae; parasitic in the oothecae of cockroaches........ COMPERIA GOMES, 1942
Antennal scape not or only slightly expanded ventrally (fig. 45); head and body without metallic refringence; parasitic in Pseudococcidae........ APHYCUS MAYR
54 Mesoscutum with parapsidal sulci (fig. 46); basal one-half or so of tegulae white; antennal scape slender, subcylindrical; primary parasitoids of Coccinellidae................HOMALOTYLUS MAYR, 1875
Mesoscutum without parapsidaJ sulci; tegula not white; scape moderately to broadly expanded ventrally; parasitic in Notiophygidae................HOMALOTYLOIDEA MERCET, 1921
55 Body flattened dorsoventrally, the dorsum of head and thorax almost flat. Parasitic in Diaspididae........ 56
Body not flattened dorsoventrally, the head and thorax more or less convex........ 57
56 Antenna entirely broadened and flattened (fig. 29); frontovertex with two narrow whitish bands, one each extending along the dorsal eye margins. Fore wing boldly marked........ COMPERIELLA HOWARD, 1906
Antenna not broadened and flattened; frontovertex without pale bands........................HABROLEPIS FOERSTER, 1856
57 Antenna foliaceously flattened (fig. 47); junction of frontovertex and face carinate or at least acutely angled and grooved........ 58
Antenna not flattened except for scape which may be expanded ventrally; head without a facial carina................60
58 Frontovertex terminating anteriorly at a transverse groove (fig. 48) containing dense, recumbent, silvery-white setae................ANASEMION ANNECKE, 1967
Junction of frontovertex and face lacking a transverse row of dense setae........ 59
59 Greatest (oblique) length of antennal club plainly longer than upper edge of funicle, usually longer than that of funicle and pedicel together; antennal scape in profile tending to subtriangular, or at least the more or less straight (or flattened) part or upper edge less than one-half as long as that of lower edge; base of fore wing largely devoid of discal setae, or at most with a large area sparsely setose................ ANICETUS HOWARD, 1895
Greatest (oblique) length of antennal club at most as long as, usually shorter than funicle measured along upper edge; antennal scape in profile tending to subrectangular, or at least the more or less flattened upper edge more than one-half as long as the straight part of lower edge; base of fore wing usually densely setose................................PARACERAPTROCERUS GIRAULT, 1920
60 Ovipositor protruding strongly (fig. 49) at apex of metasoma by about one· half length of metasoma........ 61
Ovipositor not or only slightly exserted, if rarely strongly protruded, then antennal scrobes sulcate, or mandible slender, tridentate, the upper tooth retracted (fig. 50)........ 62
61 Head with numerous setigerous pits; fore wing with a single pale cross-band beyond venation; body robust, black in colour; parasitic in Coccidae........ LOMBITSIKALA RISBEC, 1957
Head at most with minute, indistinct punctations; fore wing without hyaline cross-bands; body more or less slender, usually generally yellowish to brownish; probably hyperparasitoids, usually in mealybugs........ PROCHILONEURUS SILVESTRI, 1915
62 Antennal scape long and slender, at most slightly expanded ventrally........ 63
Antennal scape moderately to broadly expanded, less than three times as long as its greatest width................70
63 Fore wing with marginal vein several times longer than stigmal (fig. 51); antennal club with four segments, visible only in cleared slide·mounted specimens (fig. 52)........ METAPHAENODISCUS MERCET, 1921
Marginal vein of fore wing shorter than, or subequal to stigmal vein; club with fewer than four segments................64
64 Antennal scrobes sulcate (figs 53, 54), impressed on face as two deep furrows, their lateral margins acutely angled, at least in their basal one-half or so, converging, sometimes confluent dorsally to form an inverted V-shaped impression on face........ 65
Antennal scrobes otherwise................66
65 Antennal club not longer than the distal funicle segments together; frontovertex more or less pitted; mandible with two teeth and a broad truncation (fig. 55); parasitic in Coccidae................ALOENCYRTUS PRINSLOO, 1978
Antennal club much longer than the distal three funicle segments together; frontovertex without pits or punctations; mandible with three teeth and a truncation (fig. 56). Parasitic in Lacciferidae. Male antenna with two smaIl funicle segments and a large, unsegmented banana shaped club (fig. 57)........ ERENCYRTUS MAHDIHASSAN,........1923
66 Mandible with three distinct teeth, the upper one sometimes retracted................67
Mandible otherwise................68
67 Antenna (fig. 58) slender, not clavate, the funicle segments each longer than wide, the pedicel and funicle subcqual in length; parasitic in Coccidae................ HADRENCYRTUS ANNECKE & MYNHARDT, 1973
Antenna (fig. 45) clavate, not particularly slender, the basal funicle segment plainly wider than long, small, much shorter than pedicel; parasitic in Pseudococcidae........ APHYCUS MAYR, 1876
68 Mandible with a single tooth and a broad serrated truncation (fig. 59); ovipositor with gonostyli absent; parasitic in Membracidae................PRIONOMASTIX MAYR, 1876
Mandible otherwise; gonostyli present; not parasitic in Membracidae................69
69 Antennal club large, about as long as entire funicle; integument of head and thorax heavily sclerotized, strongly and intricately sculptured with raised, irregular ridges; probably parasitic in Lacciferidae. Fore wing with areas of very coarse discal setae (fig. 60)................ COCCOPILATUS ANNECKE, 1963
Antennal club shorter than funicle; sculpture of head and thorax mostly cellulite-reticulate; parasitic in Diaspididae........ NEOCOCCIDENCYRTUS COMPERE, 1928
70 Antenna with all funicle segments transverse (fig. 61); club very large, longer than entire funicle; paratergitcs present; frontovertex pitted; parasitic in Pseudococcidae................NEODISCODES COMPERE, 1931
Funicle segments not all wider than long; club shorter than entire funicle; paratergites absent; frontovertex at most with fine punctations; not parasitic in mealybugs................71
71 Head and thoracic dorsum largely metallic blue-green or cupreous, covered with silvery-white setae; parasitic in the oothecae of cockroaches........ COMPERIA GOMES, 1942
Head and body generally yellowish to brownish, without any metallic refringence or white setae; parasitic in Coccoidea................72
72 Antennal club longer than distal three funicle segments together, usually much wider than funicle segment VI; if rarely shorter, then distal four funicle segments white................METAPHYCUS MERCET, 1917
Club about as long as the distal three funicle segments together, at most a little wider than distal funicle segment; funicle with at most distal three segments white................MICROTERYS THOMSON, 1876
73 Gonostyli exserted at apex of metasoma, the exserted parts laterally compressed, usually more or less rounded apically in lateral view........ 74
Gonostyli, if protruding at apex of metasoma, not flattened laterally, usually having the appearance of two slender, sharp stylets................78
74 Scutellum entirely or partly shiny, with a polished appearance, without differentiated sculptural cells; mandibles exceptionally large (fig. 62)........ 75
Scutellum dorsally sculptured, not smooth and polished; mandibles normal................76
75 Postmarginal vein (fig. 63) of fore wing shorter than marginal, not reaching to a level near apex of stigmal; basal triangle of wing disc largely devoid of setae; parasitic in Coleoptera................ZETETICONTUS SILVESTRI, 1915
Postmarginal vein of fore wing subequal to or longer than marginal, reaching to about the level of apex of stigmal; basal triangle of wing disc evenly and densely setose; parasitic in Diptera........ TACHINAEPHAGUS ASHMEAD,........1904
76 Antennal funicle and club white in colour; antennal scape expanded ventrally, the funicle segments all wider than long; parasitic in Coleoptera. Head with membranous interruptions of sclerotized integument as in fig. 64........ CHRYSOMELECHTHRUS TRJAPITZIN, 1978
Antennal funicle and club dark in colour; scape slender, subcylindrical, the funicle with at least basal four or five segments longer than wide; parasitic in Diptera........ 77
77 Head and body entirely metallic green to blue-green in colour; pedicel shorter than, to about as long as, basal funicle segment; clypeal margin not crenulate........ CERCHYSIUS WESTWOOD, 1832
Head and body without metallic lustre; pedicel plainly longer than basal funicle segment; clypeal margin with crenulae........ XYPHIMETASOMA RISBEC, 1954
78 Head, in frontal view, with eyes large, extending almost to mouth margin, the genae very short. Head and body metallic green in colour, the tegulae partly white; male antenna with four rami, borne on the first four funicle segments; parasitic in Lepidoptera........ PARABLASTOTHRIX MERCET, 1917
Genae much longer, usually plainly more than one-third longest diameter of eye in frontal view........ 79
79 Mandible with four teeth (figs 43, 65)........ 80
Mandible otherwise................81
80 Scutellum longitudinally striate (fig. 66); dorsum of thorax gently convex, the thorax not dorsoventrally compressed........ MERCETENCYRTUS TRJAPITZIN, 1963
Scutellum largely cellulate-reticulate, not giving the surface a striated effect; body some what flattened dorsoventrally, the thoracic dorsum flat or almost so........ ADELENCYRTUS ASHMEAD, 1900
81 Mesoscutum with parapsidal sulci (cf. fig. 46)........ 82
Mesoscutum without parapsidal sulci........ 83
82 Antenna (fig. 67) long and slender, the scape subcylindrical, the funicle segments all longer than wide; paratergites present; body entirely black, or black with metasoma yellowish, the latter laterally margined with blackish-brown; head and thorax with a metallic refringence; parasitic in Pseudococcidae................CHARITOPUS FOERSTER, 1856
Antennal scape moderately to broadly expanded ventrally, the funicle segments not all longer than wide (fig. 68); paratergites absent; head and body without a metallic refringence, usually yellowish to brownish in colour; parasitic in Coccoidea other than Pseudococcidae................METAPHYCUS MERCET, 1917
83 Antennal scape cylindrical or almost so, more than three times as long as its greatest width........ 84
Scape moderately to broadly expanded ventrally, less than three times as long as wide........ 117
84 Antennal sockets placed high on face (fig. 69), their lower limits at or above lower eye level. Body black in colour, the frontovertex and face more or less pitted; antennal scrobes usually sulcate; parasitic in Coccidae........ BOTHRIOPHRYNE COMPERE, 1937
Antennal scrobes placed lower on face, their lower limits well below lower eye level, sometimes almost at mouth margin........ 85
85 Antennal club white........ 86
Antennal club not white........ 87
86 Head and thorax brilliant metallic green in colour; antennal club strongly obliquely truncate apically; mandible (fig. 70) with two teeth and a broad truncation; parasitic in the oothecae of cockroaches........ COMPERIA GOMES, 1942
Head and body without metallic refringence; club rounded apically; mandible (fig. 50) with three slender teeth, the dorsal one somewhat retracted; parasitic in Pseudococcidae................APHYCUS MAYR, 1876
87 Antenna nine-segmented, the club unsegmented. Polyembryonic parasitoids of Lepidoptera larvae................88
Antenna eleven-segmented, the club three-segmented................89
88 Antennal club obliquely truncate from near base (fig. 71); postmarginal vein of fore wing short, shorter than stigmal................LITOMASTIX THOMSON, 1876
Antennal club rounded or more or less squarely truncate at apex (fig. 72); postmarginal vein (fig. 73) unsually long, reaching to a level beyond apex of stigmal vein................AGENIASPIS DAHLBOM, 1857
89 Mandible (fig. 74) with three distinct teeth and a straight dorsal truncation. Parasitic in Lacciferidae........ 90
Mandible otherwise........ 91
90 Abdomen with two interrupted rows of gland-like structures (fig. 75), one each on tergum II and VII, head and thorax with rather strong metallic refringence........ ADENCYRTUS PRINSLOO, 1977
Abdomen without gland-like structures; head and body at most very slightly metallic in parts. Male antenna (fig. 57) with two small, transverse funicle segments and a long, unsegmented banana-shaped club................ERENCYRTUS MAHDIHASSAN, 1923
91 Antennal scrobes sulcate (figs 53, 54, 76), their lateral margins sharply angled, usually impressed on face as an inverted V........ 92
Scrobes otherwise........ 94
92 Gonostyli very short and broad (fig. 77), subtriangular, densely covered with short, spine-like setae. Body black in colour; male antenna ten-segmented, the club two-segmented; parasitic in Lacciferidae........ LACCACIDA PRINSLOO, 1977
Gonostyli otherwise: elongate and slender, not densely covered with spine-like setae. Antenna of male nine-segmented, the club not segmented........ 93
93 Mandible (fig. 78) with three teeth; frontovertex with fine punctations; parasitic in Lacciferidae................TACHARDIAEPHAGUS ASHMEAD, 1904
Mandible (fig. 55) with two teeth and a dorsal truncation; frontovertex with large punctations or with pits; parasitic in Coccidae........ ALOENCYRTUS PRINSLOO, 1978
94 Antennal funicle with contrasting white and black segments........ 95
Antennal funicle unicolorous or almost so........ 97
95 Body yellowish to brownish, without a metallic tinge; antennal club rounded apically; primary parasitoids of Coccidae........ METAPHYCUS MERCET, 1917
Body black, in parts with weak to strong metallic refringence; antennal club obliquely or transversely truncate apically; not parasitic in Coccidae........ 96
96 Mandible with three distinct teeth; antennal club (fig. 79) transversely truncate apically; marginal vein punctiform (fig. 80); polyembryonic parasitoids in larvae of Lepidoptera................PARALITOMASTIX MERCET, 1921
Mandible with two teeth and a dorsal truncation; antennal club (fig. 81) obliquely truncate apically; marginal vein of fore wing (fig. 82) well developed; hyperparasitic in Coccidae........ SILVESTRIA TRJAPITZIN, 1972
97 All funicle segments plainly wider than long................98
Funicle segments not all wider than long................102
98 Postmarginal vein (fig. 83) of fore wing very long, much longer than marginal, reaching to a level beyond apex of stigmal; paratergites present; mandible with three slender teeth, the middle one longest; parasitic in Pseudococcidae................BLEPYRUS HOWARD, 1898
Fore wing venation otherwise; paratergites absent; mandible otherwise; not parasitic in mealybugs........ 99
99 Antennal scrobes absent or represented by two very short, shallow furrows, at most hardly longer than the longest diameter of a torulus; the latter placed at or close to mouth margin; parasitic in aculeate Hymenoptera................COELOPENCYRTUS TIMBERLAKE, 1919
Antennal scrobes otherwise, usually well developed; antennal sockets placed higher on face, their upper limits usually about level with lower eye margins; not parasitic in aculeate Hymenoptera........ 100
100 Maxillary palpi each with three segments, the labial with a single segment; small species, about 0,6 mm in length; parasitic in eggs of Coleoptera and Diptera................OOBIUS TRJAPITZIN, 1963
Palpi otherwise; larger species, often more than 1 mm in length; not egg parasitoids........ 101
101 Head and body dominantly dark blackish-brown to black; antennal club (fig. 84) obliquely truncate apically; parasitic in Diptera........ EXORISTOBIA ASHMEAD, 1904
Head and body dominantly yellowish to brownish-yellow; antennal club rounded apically; parasitic in Coccoidea........ METAPHYCUS MERCET, 1917
102 Small species, at most about 1 mm in length, but usually less than 1 mm; exclusively parasitic in insect eggs, often in those of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera........ 103
Larger species, usually more than 1 mm in length; if less than 1 mm in length, then not parasitic in insect eggs, but in the larvae and pupae of insects................104
103 Antennal club longer than entire funicle; funicle segments I-V transverse; maxillary palpi each with three segments, the labial palpi not segmented........ OOBIUS TRJAPITZIN, 1963
Antennal club shorter than entire funicle; maxillary palpi each with four segments, the labial with three........ OOENCYRTUS ASHMEAD, 1900
104 Antennal scrobes absent or represented by two very short shallow furrows, at most hardly longer than the longest diameter of a torulus; head usually approximately round in outline in frontal view with mouth margin broad, antennal sockets placed close to mouth margin; parasitic in aculeate Hymenoptera................COELOPENCYRTUS TIMBERLAKE, 1919
Scrobes otherwise, usually well developed; other characters different; not parasitic in aculeate Hymenoptera........ 105
105 Mandible with three acute or subacute teeth (figs 85, 86)........ 106
Mandible otherwise, rarely with three teeth, but then dorsal tooth not acute or subacute, but broad, the apex squarely to roundly truncate (fig. 87)................111
106 Head and body entirely and brilliantly metallic in colour; parasitic in Aclerdidae................MAYRIDIA MERCET. 1921
Head and body at most with a faint to moderately strong metallic refringence on frontovertex, face and thorax; not parasitic in Aclerdidae........ 107
107 Antennal club as long as the distal three funicle segments together; marginal vein or fore wing longer than stigmal; parasitic in dryinid wasps........ HELEGONATOPUS PERKINS, 1906
Antennal club longer than funicle segments III-VI; marginal vein at most as long as stigmal; not parasitic in Hymenoptera........ 108
108 Antennal club obliquely truncate apically. Thoracic dorsum usually with metallic green and purple refringence; polyembryonic parasitoids of Lepidoptera larvae........ LITOMASTIX THOMSON, 1876
Antennal club rounded apically, or club segments transverse........ 109
109 Antenna long and slender, the funicle segments all longer than wide; polyembryonic parasitoids of Lepidoptera larvae........ COPIDOSOMA RATZEBURG, 1844
Funicle segments not all longer than wide, the antenna not particularly slender; not parasitic in Lepidoptera................110
110 Marginal and postmarginal veins very short, the latter much shorter than stigmal vein, sometimes punctiform; frontovertex without punctations; usually parasitic in Coccidae................METAPHVCUS MERCET, 1917
Marginal and postmarginal veins well developed, the latter reaching almost to the level of apex of stigmal vein; frontovertex with scattered puncrations; exclusively parasitic in Lacciferidae........ TACHARDIAEPHACUS ASHMEAD, 1904
111 Tergum II and VII of abdomen each with an interrupted row of gland-like structures (fig. 88)........ ZAOMMA ASHMEAD, 1900
Antennal club long, usually about as long as enure funicle; legs usually banded; parasitic in Diaspididae. Abdomen without gland-like structures........ 112
112 Maxillary palpi each with three segments, the labial each with two; parasitic in Diaspididae. Small species, usually not much more than 1 mm in length; antenna generally slender, the club long........ COCCIDENCYRTUS ASHMEAD, 1900
Maxillary palpi each with four segments, the labial with three; not parasitic in Diaspididae........ 113
113 Marginal vein of fore wing relatively long*, broad, dark in colour, about as long as, or longer than, stigmal vein (figs 89, 90); mandible with three well separated teeth, the upper one squarely or roundly truncate (fig. 87)........ 114
Marginal vein punctiform or very short, shorter than stigmal (figs 91, 92); if rarely subequal to stigmal, then mandible with a well separated ventral tooth and a broad dorsal truncation (fig. 93)........ 115
114 Body longer than 1 mm; thorax slender, the scutellum longer than wide; legs usually not banded; primary parasitoids of Syrphidae........ SYRPHOPHAGUS ASHMEAD, 1900
Smaller species, usually about 1 mm in length; scutellum relatively broad, about as long as wide or a little wider than long; legs usually banded; hyperparasitoids of aphids, rarely of psyllids................APHIDENCYRTUS ASHMEAD, 1900
115 Head and body pale, dominantly yellow in colour, without metallic refringence; parasitic in Coccidae. Male remarkable in colour: orange and brilliant metallic green in parts........ ARGUTENCYRTUS PRINSLOO & ANNECKE, 1979
Head and body entirely metallic in colour, or black with some parts with faint to moderately strong metallic refringence, or rarely at least head and thorax black; not parasitic in Coccidae........ 116
116 Usually entirely metallic green or blue-green in colour, rarely with only some parts metallic in colour; parasitic in Psyllidae........ PSYLLAEPHAGUS ASHMEAD, 1900
Never entirely metallic in colour, at most the head and thoracic dorsum with weak to moderately strong metallic refringence; parasitic in Syrphidae and Coccinellidae................ SYRPHOPHAGUS ASHMEAD, 1900
117 Eyes exceptionally setose (fig. 123), the setae long, strongly developed; frontovertex sparsely pitted; antenna (fig. 126) with scape blackish, the remainder of antenna uniformly paler in colour........ SWAZENCYRTUS Prinsloo & Annecke, 1979.
Eyes sparsely setose, the setae fine; frontovertex at most finely punctate; colour of antenna otherwise........ 118
118 Head tending to opisthognathous, the frontovertex almost horizontal, meeting the inflexed face at an acute angle, so that head is subtriangular in lateral view; parasitic in ticks (Ixodidae). Male sometimes brachypterous, in which case the head has a forked process jutting forward at junction of frontovertex and face........ HUNTERELLUS HOWARD, 1908
Head hypognathous, the frontovertex more or less convex, rounded on to face; not parasitic in ticks........ 119
119 Head and body largely yellowish to brownish, without metallic refringence; antennal scrobes more or less well developed; toruli with lower limits well above clypeal margin; parasitic in Coccoidea................METAPHYCUS MERCET, 1917
Head and body dominantly black, the head and thoracic dorsum with faint to strong metallic refringence; scrobes absent or developed as two very short shallow furrows, hardly longer than the longest diameter of a torulus; toruli placed at or close to mouth margin; polyembryonic parasitoids of aculeate Hymenoptera........ COELOPENCYRTUS TIMBERLAKE, 1919
120 Antennal funicle seven-segmented........ ALAMELLA AGARWAL, 1966
Club two-segmented; head and body without metallic lustre; maxillary palpi each with three segments, the labial with two. Funicle with six or fewer segments........ 121
121 Scutellum with a posterior flange or lamella (cf. fig. 15); in profile this flange shows as a thin flat caudal projection of the scutellum. Body often black, the head dark metallic green; antenna long, slender, the scape cylindrical; marginal and postmarginal veins long........ ERICYDNUS WALKER, 1837
Scutellum without a flange........ 122
122 Head prognathous (fig. 94), elongate and flattened in dorsal view, almost as long as thorax (fig. 95), the eyes elongate, in dorsal view occupying almost whole of head laterally; antenna (fig. 96) extremely large, foliaceously flattened, the club three-segmented................ MONSTRANUSIA TRJAPITZIN, 1964
Head otherwise; if antenna foliaceously flattened, then club not segmented................123
123 Antenna nine-segmented........ 124
Antenna ten or eleven-segmented........ 126
124 Fore wing distinctly infuscated with hyaline patches (fig. 97). Head .and body largely metallic in colour; antenna sometimes foliaceously flattened; ovipositor often strongly protruded at apex of metasoma; male antenna with funicle six-segmented, segments II – V each with a ramus........ TETRACNEMUS WESTWOOD, 1837
Fore wing entirely hyaline........ 125
125 Head and body entirely metallic green to blue-green in colour; antenna (fig. 111) long, the fumcle and club broad, somewhat laterally compressed................CALLAINCYRTUS Prinsloo & Annecke, 1979
Head and body at most with faint metallic refringence on frontovertex, face and thoracic dorsum; antenna not particularly slender, the segments not flattened................ALLOCERELLUS SILVESTRI, 1915
126 Antenna ten-segmented, the club with two segments........ 127
Antenna eleven-segmented, the club three-segmented........ 128
127 Head and body flatlened dorsoventrally; maxillary palpi each with two segments, the labial not segmented. Small species, weakly sclerotized, usually yellowish, without metallic refringence; marginal and postmarginal veins short or punctiform........ RHOPUS FOERSTER, 1856
Head and body not flattened dorsoventrally; maxillary palpi each with three segments, the labial each with two................ALLOCERELLUS SILVESTRI, 1915
128 Frontovertex (fig. 98) densely pitted, the pits with a metallic green lustre; antennal scape subcylindical. Dominantly black species, the fore wing entirely and strongly infuscated; cephalic margin of fore wing forming an incision at apex of submarginal vein; male antenna with six transverse funicle segments and a long unsegmented banana-shaped club................CHALCASPIS HOWARD, 1895
Frontovertex at most punctate, the punctations not refringent........ 129
129 Head and body flattened dorsoventrally; maxillary palpi each with two segments, the labial not segmented. Small species, weakly sclerotized, usually yellowish, without metallic refringence; marginal and postmarginal veins very short or punctiform................RHOPUS FOERSTER, 1856
Head and body not flattened dorsoventrally; palpi otherwise........ 130
130 Maxillary palpi each with three segments, the labial each with two................131
Maxillary palpi each with four segments, the labial three-segmented........ 132
131 Antenna (fig. 99) long, filiform, the funicle segments all plainly longer than wide; postmarginal vein (fig. 100) of fore wing long, extending to a level well beyond apex of stigmal; small species. Fore wing hyaline or partly infuscated........ LEPTOMASTIDEA MERCET, 1916
Antenna (fig. 101) not particularly slender, the funicle segments not all longer than wide; postmarginal vein short, shorter than stigmal; larger species........ DOLIPHOCERAS MERCET, 1921
132 Antennal funicle with contrasting white and black segments; if rarely unicolorous, then marginal and postmarginal veins very short or punctiform........ 133
Funicle unicolorous; marginal and postmarginal veins well developed, the latter often very long........ 134
133 Antennal scape moderately to broadly expanded ventrally (fig. 102); fore wing hyaline; frontovertex without punctations................ANAGYRUS HOWARD, 1895
Antennal scape subcylindrical (fig. 121); fore wing weakly to strongly infuscated (fig. 119), at least in the distal three-fourths or so; frontovertex and face with scattered punctations (fig. 118). Basal part of fore wing with setation as in fig. 120; male antenna as in fig. 122................XIPHOMASTIX DE SANTIS, 1972
134 Fore wing distinctly infuscated with hyaline patches........ 135
Fore wing hyaline; if rarely infuscated, then with faint longitudinally infuscated bands........ 136
135 Head and body dominantly orange-red; fore wing (fig. 103) tapering towards apex from the level of apex of venation, the wing disc characteristically maculated as in fig. 103; antenna not particularly slender, the scape somewhat expanded ventrally, about three times as long as its greatest width; wings held horizontal in life................YASUMATSUIOLA TRJAPITZIN, 1978
Colour of head and body otherwise; fore wing (fig. 104) long, slender, not tapering towards apex, the latter broadly rounded; wing disc infuscated with hyaline cross-bands or patches; antenna (fig. 105) long and slender, filiform, the scape cylindrical, much more than three times as long as wide; wings held erect in life................CALLIPTEROMA MOTSCHULSKY, 1863
136 Scutellum with sculptural cells longitudinally oriented, somewhat raised, giving the disc a striate effect (fig. 114). Mesoscutum with parapsidal sulci (fig. 114); head and body black, shiny, without metallic refringence; male antenna (fig. 11 7) with rami, one each on funicle segments II–V........ INSLEYIA Prinsloo & Annecke, 1979.
Sculpture of scutellum otherwise................137
137 Antennal scape (fig. 106) moderately to broadly expanded ventrally, or if only slightly expanded, then the ends cylindrical. General colour yellow to orange, without metallic lustre; thorax covered with fine white setae; postmarginal vein long, reaching to a level beyond apex of stigmal................GYRANUSOIDEA COMPERE, 1947
Antennal scape not or hardly expanded ventrally........ 138
138 Body always black, with moderate to strong metallic green, blue or purplish refringence. Mesoscutum with incomplete parapsidal sulci; marginal and postmarginal veins long........ CLAUSENIA ISHII, 1923
Colour otherwise, if rarely black, then without any metallic refringence........ 139
139 Antenna filiform, the basal funicle segment longer than pedicel, often very much so; cercal plates advanced to a level near base of metasoma........ LEPTOMASTIX FOERSTER, 1856
Antenna not filiform, the pedicel longer than basal funicle segment; cecal plates placed near apex of metasoma................ALLOCERELLUS SILVESTRI, 1915

Reference

Prinsloo, G.L. & D.P. Annecke. 1979. A key to the genera of Encyrtidae from the Ethiopian region, with descriptions of three new genera (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 42: 349-382.

Credits

Key produced by Simon van Noort from key originally published in Prinsloo & Annecke, 1979. Illustrations included in the keys © Gerhard Prinsloo (ARC PPRI).


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. 2021. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

Copyright 2004-2021 Iziko Museums of South Africa

customisable counter