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Signiphorid wasps of the Afrotropical Region

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Chalcidoidea)



Chartocerus Motschulsky, 1859

Signiphora Ashmead, 1880


Thysanus Walker, 1840

Distribution Worldwide.
Biology Parasitoids or hyperparasitoids of aphids, psyllids, mealybugs, scale insects and flies.


Ashmead, W.H. 1880. Orange Insects: A Treatise on the Injurious and Beneficial Insects found on the Orange Trees of Florida. Ashmead Bros, Jacksonville, FL, 78 pp.
Ashmead, W. H. 1900. On the genera of the chalcid-flies belonging to the subfamily Encyrtinae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 22: 323–412.

Boucek, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. pp. 832pp. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, U.K., Cambrian News Ltd; Aberystwyth, Wales.

Brčthes, J. 1914. I.-Les Ennemis de la "Diaspis Pentagona" dans La Republique Argentine. Nunquam Otiosus 1–16. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.23608

Dozier, H.L. 1933. Miscellaneous notes and descriptions of chalcidoid parasites (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 35: 85–100.

Gibson G.A.P. 1993. Superfamilies Mymarommatoidea and Chalcidoidea (pp. 570-655). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Gibson, G.A.P., Huber, J.T., Woolley, J.B. (Editors) 1997. Annotated keys to the genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) :794pp National Research Council Research Press, Ottawa, Canada.

Girault, A.A. 1913. A Systematic Monograph of the Chalcidoid Hymenoptera of the subfamily Signiphorinae. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 45: 189–233.
Girault, A.A. 1915. Australian Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea—VII. The family Encyrtidae with descriptions of new genera and species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 4, 1–84.
Girault, A.A. 1916. New Encyrtidae from North America. Psyche 23: 41–50.
Girault, A.A. 1935. Microhymenoptera Australiensis Nova. Mostly Chalcididae. Privately printed, Wright & Baker, Sydney, pp. 2–4.
Heraty, J.M., Burks, R.A., Cruaud, A., Gibson, G.A.P., Liljeblad, J., Munro, J., Rasplus, J.-Y., Delvare, G., Janšta, P., Gumovsky, A., Huber, J., Woolley, J.B., Krogmann, L., Heydon, S., Polaszek, A., Schmidt, S., Darling, D.C., Gates, M.W., Mottern, J., Murray, E., Dal Molin, A., Triapitsyn, S., Baur, H., Pinto, J.D., van Noort, S., George, J. & Yoder, M. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cla.12006

Malenotti, E. 1916. "Signiphora merceti" Malen. n. sp. Redia 12: 181–182.

Woolley, J.B. 1983. Higher classification of the Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) and a revision of Signiphora Ashmead of the New World. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 488 pp.
Woolley, J.B. 1986. Signiphoridae or Thysanidae? A review of a problem in family-level nomenclature (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 32: 91–96. https://doi.org/10.1093/besa/32.2.91
Woolley, J.B. 1988. Phylogeny and classification of the Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Systematic Entomology 13: 465–501. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1988.tb00256.x
Woolley, J.B. 1990. Signiphoridae. In: Rosen, D. (Ed.), The Armored Scale Insects: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 167–176.
Woolley, J.B. 1997. Signiphoridae. In: Gibson, G.A.P., Huber, J.T. & Woolley, J.B. (Eds.), Annotated Keys to the Genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp. 693–699.
Woolley, J.B. & Hanson, P. 2006. Familia Signiphoridae. In: Hanson, P. & Gauld, I.D. (Eds.), Hymenoptera de la Region Neotropical. Memories of the American Entomological Institute. Vol. 77. AEI, Gainesville, pp. 422–425.
Woolley, J.B. & Vet, L.E.M. 1981. Postovipositional web-spinning behavior in a hyperparasite, Signiphora coquilletti Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 31: 627–633. https://doi.org/10.1163/002829681x00194

Woolley J.B., Dal Molin, A. 2017. Taxonomic revision of the flavopalliata species group of Signiphora (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae). Zootaxa 4315: 1-150. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4315.1.1


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2021. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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