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Key to Dryinus species

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Chrysidoidea; Family: Dryinidae; Subfamily: Dryininae; Genus: Dryinus)

ClassificationIdentification keys


Key to the species-groups of Dryinus (only females)

1. Enlarged claw very reduced, approximately as long as or slightly longer than arolium ...Group 4

- Enlarged claw not reduced, much longer than arolium ...2

2. Enlarged claw without subapical tooth, or with at least two subapical teeth; rarely with one subapical tooh, but then with one very broad apical lamella ...Group 3

- Enlarged claw with one subapical tooth, never with one broad apical lamella ...3

3. Notauli at least partly present ...Group 1

- Notauli absent ...Group 2

 

The above groups are distributed in the zoogeographical regions as follows:

Palaearctic: groups 1, 3.

Afrotropical: groups 1, 2, 3.

Oriental: groups 1, 2, 3.

Nearctic: groups 1, 2, 3, 4.

Neotropical: groups 1, 2, 3, 4.

Australian: groups 1, 3.

 

All Afrotropical species of Dryinus can be attributed to one of the above three female groups.


 

Dryinus Group 1

Forty species are known in the Afrotropical region.

 

Afrotropical Dryinus group 1: key to the females

1. Enlarged claw much shorter than protarsomere 5 and with very small subapical tooth ...D. seyrigi Benoit

- Enlarged claw approximately as long as protarsomere 5, or slightly shorter, and usually with subapical tooth big or rarely small ...2

2. Protarsomere 1 twice or more than twice as long as 4 ...3

- Protarsomere 1 as long as 4, or shorter, or less than twice as long as 4 ...7

3. Head and mesosoma testaceous, except ocellar triangle and axilla brown and petiole black; protarsomere 1 approximately twice as long as 4; head completely reticulate rugose, or granulate, with slight tracks of irregular striae; region of vertex around occipital carina sculptured by numerous short and slight longitudinal striae ...D. turneri Olmi, Copeland & Guglielmino (see group 2)

- Head and mesosoma almost totally black ...4

4. Protarsomere 1 almost 3 as long as 4; head completely and strongly reticulate rugose, with region of vertex along occipital carina sculptured by numerous short longitudinal keels ...5

- Protarsomere 1 about twice as long as 4; head granulate, except some irregular longitudinal keels ...6

5. Enlarged claw with one row of lamellae  prothorax totally or almost totally black ....

...D. ugandanus (Olmi) (see group 2)

- Enlarged claw with one row of peg-like setae  prothorax totally red ...D. milleri Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

6. Pronotum with humped disc  forewing with three dark transverse bands; propodeal declivity without longitudinal keels or with two very short longitudinal keels near petiole ...D. erraticus (Turner)

- Pronotum weakly excavated, not humped  forewing with distal half darkened; propodeal declivity with two complete longitudinal keels ...D. mobotensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

7. Head (dorsally viewed) with lateral ocelli located behind imaginary straight line joining posterior edges of eyes ...8

- Head (dorsally viewed) with lateral ocelli located in front of imaginary straight line joining posterior edges of eyes, or on this line (at least with anterior margin of lateral ocelli located on this line) ...16

8. Head with posterior margin of vertex excavated  head excavated; lateral ocelli touching or almost touching occipital carina ...D. alticolus (Benoit)

- Head with posterior margin of vertex convex  head flat; lateral ocelli not touching occipital carina (occasionally almost touching)...9

9. At least metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity black or brown ...10

- Species totally testaceous, or reddish, or ferruginous, or testaceous-reddish, except petiole black ...14

10. Head almost totally black ...11

- Head almost totally testaceous, or testaceous-ferruginous ...13

11. Pronotum brown-reddish; head with TL less than twice as long as POL ...D. sierranus Olmi

- Pronotum almost totally black; head usually with TL more than twice as long as POL ...12

12. Head and mesoscutum granulate and reticulate rugose, not sculptured by longitudinal keels or striae ...D. kibalus Olmi, van Noort & Guglielmino

- Head granulate and with some longitudinal keels; mesoscutum granulate and sculptured by many subparallel longitudinal keels ...D. undulatus (Benoit)

13. Head completely granulate, without irregular keels ...D. pretorianus Olmi

- Head granulate and with numerous irregular keels ...D. cariniceps Cameron

14. Mesoscutum punctate, unsculptured among punctures, rugose near mesoscutellum ...D. dayianus Olmi

- Mesoscutum completely granulate, or granulate and with irregular keels or striae ...15

15. Head with posterior margin of vertex more convex ...D. spangleri Olmi

- Head with posterior margin of vertex less convex ...D. deceptor (Turner)

16. Head and mesosoma totally testaceous or testaceous-reddish (at most ocellar area brown)...17

- Head and mesosoma at least partly black ...20

17. Notauli almost complete, posteriorly separated ...D. bellicosus Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Notauli reaching about 0.65 length of mesoscutum ...18

18. Head and mesoscutellum punctate, unsculptured among punctures ...D. mahensis Kieffer

- Head granulate, occasionally with numerous longitudinal striae on frons and vertex; mesoscutellum granulate, occasionally also sculptured by slight longitudinal keels ...19

19. Metapectal-propodeal disc about 3 as long as propodeal declivity ...D. schoutedeni (Benoit)

- Metapectal-propodeal disc about twice as long as propodeal declivity . D. whittleorum Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

20. Lateral ocelli touching occipital carina ...21

- Lateral ocelli not touching occipital carina ...22

21. Enlarged claw with one big subapical tooth  enlarged claw and protarsomere 5 with longer rows of lamellae ...D. saussurei (Ceballos)

- Enlarged claw with one small subapical tooth  enlarged claw and protarsomere 5 with shorter rows of lamellae ...D. hova (Ceballos)

22. Temple prominent  rarely temple little prominent or absent, but then head with posterior margin of vertex strongly or little excavated ...23

- Temple absent  head with posterior margin of vertex convex or straight ...44

23. Forewing with distal part of 2r-rs&Rs vein approximately 3 as long as proximal part ...24

- Forewing with distal part of 2r-rs&Rs vein less than 3 as long as proximal part ...25

24. Enlarged claw with one large subapical tooth ...D. basilewskyi Benoit

- Enlarged claw with one small subapical tooth ...D. erraticus (Turner)

25. Mesoscutum punctate, unsculptured or very slightly granulate among punctures, without keels ...D. chamaeleo Benoit

- Mesoscutum strongly granulate, or with keels, or reticulate rugose ...26

26. Head granulate, with irregular or regular keels, or reticulate rugose ...27

- Head completely granulate, without keels (except frontal line) ...41

27. Metapectal-propodeal disc long, twice or more than twice as long as propodeal declivity ...28

- Metapectal-propodeal disc short, as long as, or less than twice as long as propodeal declivity ...29

28. Anterior impression of pronotum stronger  head usually mostly reddish, rarely mostly black ...D. schoutedeni (Benoit)

- Anterior impression of pronotum little distinct  head mostly black ...D. mayogo (Benoit)

29. Head with POL approximately twice or 1.5 as long as OL ...30

- Head with POL approximately as long as OL, or shorter, or slightly longer ...34

30. Mesoscutum granulate, occasionally partly reticulate rugose ...D. saussurei (Ceballos)

- Mesoscutum completely reticulate rugose, or with lateral regions sculptured by many subparallel longitudinal keels ...31

31. Mesoscutum with lateral regions sculptured by many subparallel longitudinal keels and median region completely or partly punctate, unsculptured among punctures ...32

- Mesoscutum completely reticulate rugose or granulate and partly reticulate rugose ...33

32. Frons sculptured by many irregular longitudinal striae ...D. erenianus Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Frons granulate and rugose ...D. nigrithorax Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

33. Temple much longer than OPL; notauli incomplete, reaching about 0.50.6 length of mesoscutum; forewing with three dark transverse bands ...D. hararianus Olmi

- Temple shorter than OPL; notauli complete, posteriorly separated; forewing with two dark transverse bands ...D. copelandi Olmi

34. Occipital carina incomplete ...35

- Occipital carina complete ...36

35. Frontal line complete ...D. shimbanus Olmi

- Frontal line absent ...D. digo Olmi, Copeland & Guglielmino

36. Mesoscutum with lateral regions strongly sculptured by numerous parallel and longitudinal keels ...D. paulyi Olmi

- Mesoscutum granulate and partly or completely rugose, not sculptured by numerous longitudinal keels ...37

37. Enlarged claw with large subapical tooth ...38

- Enlarged claw with small subapical tooth ...40

38. Frons granulate and slightly rugose near clypeus, without longitudinal keels on sides of frontal line; forewing with two broad dark transverse bands ...D. grossus Olmi

- Frons granulate and sculptured by some longitudinal keels on sides of frontal line; forewing with three dark transverse bands ...39

39. Posterior collar of pronotum testaceous or reddish; body less robust ...D. orophilus (Benoit)

- Posterior collar of pronotum black; body very robust ...D. daviesi Olmi

40. Prothorax completely testaceous-reddish; pronotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured ...D. yemenensis Olmi & van Harten

- Prothorax black, except anterior margin, lateral margins and posterior collar of pronotum reddish; pronotum granulate, with longitudinal keels on lateral regions and posterior transverse impression ...D. erraticus (Turner)

41. Mesoscutum granulate, with posterior half reticulate rugose ...D. orophilus (Benoit)

- Mesoscutum completely granulate, not reticulate rugose ...42

42. Subapical tooth of enlarged claw located very near apex ...D. modestus Olmi

- Subapical tooth of enlarged claw located farther from apex ...43

43. Head and prothorax completely testaceous-reddish; head with TL approximately 3 as long as OL; metapectal-propodeal disc approximately twice as long as propodeal declivity ...D. evertsi Olmi

- Head and prothorax almost completely black; head with TL slightly longer than OL; metapectal-propodeal disc about as long as propodeal declivity ...D. praecipuus Olmi

44. Occipital carina incomplete; protarsomere 5 with apex very long ...D. inexpectatus Guglielmino & Olmi

- Occipital carina complete; protarsomere 5 with shorter apex ...45

45. Notauli almost complete, almost reaching posterior margin of mesoscutum; anterior impression of pronotum usually little distinct ...D. burgeoni Benoit

- Notauli reaching about 0.5 length of mesoscutum; anterior impression of pronotum usually deeper ...D. afer (Olmi)


 

Afrotropical Dryinus group 2: key to the females

1. Mesosoma completely black; head with OOL slightly longer than POL ...D. ugandanus (Olmi)

- Mesosoma completely or partly testaceous-reddish; head with OOL at least twice as long as POL ...2

2. Mesosoma completely or almost completely testaceous-reddish; head completely reticulate rugose, with OOL 23 as long as POL ...D. turneri Olmi, Copeland & Guglielmino

- Prothorax testaceous-reddish; rest of mesosoma black; head not reticulate rugose, with OOL at least 4 as long as POL ...3

3. Head completely granulate; mesoscutellum granulate; forewing hyaline, with two slight dark spots ...D. pseudoafer Olmi

- Head granulate, except frons sculptured by many longitudinal striae; mesoscutellum reticulate rugose; forewing with two distinct dark transverse bands ...D. irwini Olmi


 

Afrotropical Dryinus group 3: key to the females

1. Notauli visible, incomplete ...2

- Notauli absent ...6

2. Mesoscutum reticulate rugose ...D. botswanensis (Olmi)

- Mesoscutum granulate, not reticulate rugose ...3

3. Enlarged claw with one row of bristles and apex rounded and provided with lamellae ...D. madagascolus Olmi

- Enlarged claw with one row of lamellae and apex pointed or rounded and never provided with lamellae ...4

4. Enlarged claw with apex rounded ...D. teres Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Enlarged claw with apex pointed ...5

5. Enlarged claw without subapical tooth, with distal inner margin slightly serrated ...D. aberrans Benoit

- Enlarged claw with one big subapical tooth distinctly divided into two teeth D. saussurei (Ceballos) (see group 1)

6. Enlarged claw with lamellae ...7

- Enlarged claw without lamellae, only with bristles ...13

7. Enlarged claw with proximal and medial lamellae ...8

- Enlarged claw without proximal lamellae ...10

8. Enlarged claw not spatulate  forewing with one dark transverse band ...D. vannoorti Olmi

- Enlarged claw spatulate  forewing with 12 dark transverse bands ...9

9. Enlarged claw with few small teeth located around apex  head granulate and sculptured by many irregular keels ...D. ivoriensis (Olmi)

- Enlarged claw with long row of many teeth present from proximal region to apex  head granulate, not sculptured by irregular keels ...D. dentatiforceps Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

10. Enlarged claw with medial and distal lamellae  head with OL more than 4 as long as POL....

...D. tulearensis Olmi, Copeland & van Noort

- Enlarged claw only with distal lamellae  head with OL shorter than POL ...11

11. Forewing with two dark transverse bands; occipital carina complete ...D. aethiopicus (Olmi)

- Forewing with one dark transverse band or one small dark spot; occipital carina incomplete ...12

12. Mesosoma almost totally black; mesoscutum completely granulate and reticulate rugose; mesoscutellum mostly reticulate rugose ...D. zambeziacus Olmi

- Mesosoma almost completely testaceous-reddish; mesoscutum granulate, with lateral regions sculptured by numerous transverse keels; mesoscutellum granulate ...D. grobbelaarae Olmi

13. Hind wing with distal extremity darkened; mesoscutellum reticulate rugose; propodeal declivity completely reticulate rugose ...D. noyesi (Olmi)

- Hind wing completely hyaline; mesoscutellum granulate or unsculptured; propodeal declivity completely reticulate rugose or with central area sculptured by irregular and longitudinal keels ...14

14. Occipital carina laterally reaching eyes ...D. bekilyensis (Benoit)

- Occipital carina laterally not reaching eyes ...D. eardleyi (Olmi)

It is not possible, as yet, to divide males into the above groups.


 

Key to the known Afrotropical Dryinus males (males not divided into groups)

It is not possible, as yet, to divide males into the female groups.

 

1. Notauli not visible; mesoscutum strongly reticulate rugose, with numerous areolae as large as ocelli ...D. aethiopicus (Olmi)

- Notauli visible; mesoscutum granulate or reticulate rugose; if reticulate rugose, areolae much less large than ocelli ...2

2. Occipital carina complete ...3

- Occipital carina incomplete ...6

3. Dorsal part of occipital carina laterally reaching eyes ...D. bekilyensis (Benoit)

- Dorsal part of occipital carina laterally not reaching eyes ...4

4. Head black, except mandible, malar space, clypeus and anterior region of frons testaceous ...D. turneri Olmi, Copeland & Guglielmino

- Head black, except mandible testaceous ...5

5. Hypopygium with distal margin rounded ...D. erraticus (Turner)

- Hypopygium with distal margin emarginated ...D. pretorianus Olmi

6. Head black, except mandible, malar space and clypeus testaceous; paramere with large dorsal process ...D. cariniceps Cameron (or D. yemenensis Olmi & van Harten)

- Head black, except mandible testaceous; paramere without dorsal process ...7

7. Head with OL approximately as long as OOL ...8

- Head with OL much or a little shorter than OOL ...9

8. Head with lateral ocelli not touching occipital carina ...D. mahensis (Kieffer)

- Head with lateral ocelli touching occipital carina ...D. saussurei (Ceballos)

9. Forewing with 2R1 cell open ...10

- Forewing with 2R1 cell closed ...11

10. Penis much longer than paramere ...D. modestus Olmi

- Penis approximately as long as paramere ...D. orophilus (Benoit)

11. Frons with median longitudinal hump from anterior ocellus to antennal toruli ...D. deceptor (Turner)

- Frons flat in front of anterior ocellus, only convex between antennal toruli ...12

12. Greatest breadth of anterior ocellus longer than POL ...Dryinus luweli (Benoit) (see species of Dryinus incertae sedis)

- Greatest breadth of anterior ocellus shorter than POL ...D. afer (Olmi)

 


References

Olmi, M., Copeland, R.S. & van Noort, S. 2019. Dryinidae of the Afrotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 4630: 1619. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4630.1.1


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. 2021. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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