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of the Afrotropical Region

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea)

ClassificationIdentification keys









































Biology Koinobiont or idiobiont endoparasitoids of insect immature stages or adults. Most commonly larva of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, but also Hemiptera nymphs and adults; Orthoptera and Psocoptera nymphs; adult Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Chrysopidae; Symphyta larvae; Diptera larva; Isoptera and Embioptera.


Belokobylskij, S.A. 1992. [On the classification and phylogeny of the braconid wasps subfamilies Doryctinae and Exothecinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) Part 1.] Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye. 71(4):900-927. [Entomological Review. 72(6):109-137.]
Belokobylskij, S.A. 2006. Neoheterospilus gen. n., a new genus of the tribe Heterospilini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Doryctinae) with highly modified ovipositor and a worldwide distribution. Insect Systematics and Evolution, 37, 149–178.

Belokobylskij, S.A. 2011. Review of the genus Stephanospathius Belokobylskij, 1992 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with discussion of their tribal position. Zookeys. 118 :1-17.

Belokobylskij, S.A. 2013. The First Record of the Genus Doryctinus Roman, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) in the Old World, with description of a new species from Africa. Annales Zoologici 63: 113-122. doi: 10.3161/000345413X666165

Belokobylskij, S.A. 2020. Two new species of the genus Neoheterospilus Belokobylskij, 2006 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) from Yemen. Zootaxa 4853: 591–600. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4853.4.8.

Belokobylskij, SA, Zaldivar-Riverón, A & Quicke, DLJ. 2004. Phylogeny of the genera of the parasitic wasps subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) based on morphological evidence. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 142(3): 369-404.

Broad GR. 2021. Taxonomic changes in Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera), and notes on certain type specimens. Zootaxa 4941: 511–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4941.4.3

Brues, C.T. 1926. Studies on Ethiopian Braconidae with a catalogue of the African species. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 61:206-436.
Brues, C.T. 1924. Some South African parasitic Hymenoptera of the families Evaniidae, Braconidae, Alysiidae, and Plumariidae in the South African Museum with a catalogue of the known species. Annals of the South African Museum. 19:1-150.

Brullé, M.A. 1846. Tome Quatričme. Des Hyménoptčres. Les Ichneumonides. In: Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau A. "Histoire Naturelles des Insectes." Paris. 680 pp. pp. 56-521.
Cameron, P. 1904. Descriptions of new genera and species of Hymenoptera from Dunbrody, Cape Colony. Record of the Albany Museum 1: 25-160. 
Cameron, P. 1905. On the Hymenoptera of the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa (Second paper). Record of the Albany Museum. 1: 185-244

Cameron, P. 1905. On some new genera and species of Hymenoptera from Cape Colony and Transvaal. Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society 15: 195-257.
Cameron, P. 1906. Descriptions of new species of parasitic Hymenoptera chiefly in the collection of the South African Museum, Cape Town. Annals of the South African Museum 5: 17-186.

Cameron, P. 1909. On some African species of Braconinae in the Royal Berlin Zoological Museum. Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab 30: 1-27. 
Cameron, P. 1910. On some African species of the subfamilies Exothecinae, Aphrastobraconinae, Cheloninae, Doryctinae, Cardiochilinae and Microgasterinae in the Royal Berlin Zoological Museum. Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft 81: 433-450.

Cameron, P. 1911. On the parasitic Hymenoptera collected by Mr. A.J.T. Janse, Transvaal. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 2: 173-217.

Cameron, P. 1912. On the Hymenoptera from Belgian Congo in the Congo Museum, Tervueren. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 56:357-401.
Dalla Torre, C.G. de. 1901. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol.III: Trigonalidae, Megalyridae, Stephanidae, Ichneumonidae, Agriotypidae, Evaniidae, Pelecinidae. Guilelmi Engelmann. 1901:1-544.

Dangerfield PC, Austin AD, Whitfield JB. 1999. Systematics of the world genera of Cardiochilinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 13: 917-976.

Enderlein, G. 1912. Zur Kenntnis der Spathiinen und einiger verwandter Gruppen. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 78(A):1-37.
Enderlein, G. 1901. Neue Evaniiden, Stephaniden, Mutilliden (Apterogyna), Proctotrupiden und Chalcididen, mit einer Bestimmungstabelle der africanischen Stephaniden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 1(3):187-220.

Enderlein, G. 1920. Zur Kenntnis aussereuropäischer Braconiden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 84(A)11(1918): 1-224. 
Fernandez-Triana J, Shaw MR, Boudreault C, Beaudin M, Broad GR 2020
. Annotated and illustrated world checklist of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). ZooKeys 920: 1-1089. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.920.39128

Fischer, M. 1962. Neue Braconiden-Parasiten von schädlichen Insekten (Hymenoptera). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie. 49:297-312.
Fischer, M. 1981. Untersuchungen an Stephaniscini aus dem Britischen Museum in London und dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Museum in Budapest (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae). Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse Sitzungsberichte Abteilung I. 190(6-7): 121-160.

Granger, C. 1949. Braconides de Madagascar. Memoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar (A) 2: 1-428.

Kieffer, J.J. 1904. Stephanides. In: André E. (ed.) "Species des Hyménoptčres d'Europe & d'Algérie. Tome 7." 748 pp. (Stephanidae pp. 471-490).

Marsh, P.M. 1965. The Nearctic Doryctinae, 1.A review of the subfamily with a revision of the tribe Hecabolini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 58:668-699.

Nixon, G.E.J. 1943. A revision of the Spathiinae of the Old World (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 93:173-456.
Nixon, G.E.J. 1954. Two new braconid parasites of wood-boring Coleoptera (Hymenoptera). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 12(7):380-384.

Quicke, D. L. 2014. The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps: Biology, Systematics, Evolution and Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 704 pages.

Quicke, D.L.J. & van Achterberg, C. 1990. Phylogeny of the subfamilies of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen, 258, 1–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1992.tb00068.x
Quicke, D.L.J.; Ficken, L. and Fitton, M.G. 1992. New diagnostic ovipositor characters for Doryctine wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Journal of Natural History. 26:1035-1046.
Quicke, D.L.J.; Palmer-Wilson, J.; Burrough, A. and Broad, G.R. 2004. Discovery of calcium enrichment in cutting teeth of parasitic wasp ovipositors (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). African Entomology. 12(2):259-264.
Quicke, D.L.J.; Tunstead, J.; Falco, J.V. and Marsh, P.M. 1992. Venom gland and reservoir morphology in the Doryctinae and related braconid wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Zoologica Scripta. 21:403-416.
Rahman, M.H.; Fitton, M.G. and Quicke, D.L.J. 1998. Ovipositor internal microsculpture and other features in doryctine wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Zoologica Scripta. 27(4): 333-343.

Roman, A. 1924. Wissenshaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen entomologischen Reise des Herrn Dr. A. Roman in Amazonas 1914–15, 10. Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cyclostomi prop. Arkiv for Zoologi 16(20): 1–40.

Sharkey, M.J. 1993. Family Braconidae (pp. 362-395). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Schletterer, A. 1890. Die Hymenopteren-Gattungen Stenophasmus Smith, Monomachus Westw., Pelecinus Latr. und Megalyra Westw. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift. 33(1889):197-250.
Shenefelt, R.D. and Marsh, P.M. 1976. Braconidae 9. Doryctinae. Hymenopterorum Catalogus (nova editio). Pars 13. pp.1263-1424.
Smith, F. 1870. In: Dunning, J.W. "Notes on a collection of insects sent by Mr. Ansell from Soutwest Africa." Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 1870: 531. 
Stadelmann, H. 1893. Stenophasmus büttneri nov. sp. Entomologische Nachrichten. 19:226-227.
Stanton, M.L., Palmer, T.M. & Young, T.P. 2005. Ecological barriers to early colony establishment in three coexisting acacia-ant species in Kenya. Insectes Sociaux 52(4): 393-401.

Szépligeti, G. 1901. Tropischen Cenocoeliden und Braconiden aus der Sammlung des Ungarischen National-Museums. Természetrajzi Füzetek 24: 353-402.

Szépligeti, G. 1904. Hymenoptera. Fam. Braconidae. Genera Insectorum. 22: 1-253.

Szépligeti, G. 1906. Braconiden aus der Sammlung des ungarischen National-Museums, 1. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 4: 47-618. 
Szépligeti, G. 1911. Braconidae der I. Zentral-Afrika-Expedition. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 3: 93-418.

Szépligeti, G. 1913. Braconidae gesammelt von Prof. F. Silvestri in Afrika. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria, Portici. 7:101-104.

Szépligeti, G. 1913. Neue afrikanische Braconiden aus der Sammlung der Ungarischen National-Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 11:592-608.  
Szépligeti, G. 1914. Afrikanische Braconiden des Königl. Zoologischen Museums in Berlin. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 7: 153-230.

Szépligeti, G.V. 1914. Central-Afrikanische Braconidae des Congo-Museums. Revue de Zoologie Africaine. 3: 403-420.

van Achterberg, C. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen 283: 1-189.

Viereck, H.L. 1914. Type species of the genera of Ichneumon flies. United States National Museum Bulletin. No.83. 186 pp.
Wharton, R.A., Marsh, P.M. & Sharkey, M.J., Eds. 1997. Manual of the new world genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera). The International Society of Hymenopterists, Washington DC, USA, 395 pp.

Whitfield, J.B., Austin, A.D. & Fernandez-Triana J.L. 2018. Systematics, biology, and evolution of Microgastrine parasitoid wasps. Annual Review of Entomology 63: 389 - 406. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-020117-043405

Wilkinson, D.S. 1931. On the Indo-Australian and Ethiopian species of the Braconid genus Spathius (Hymenoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 79:505-530.
Zaldivar-Riverón, Alejandro; Mori, Miharu and Quicke, Donald L.J. 2006. Systematics of the cyclostome subfamilies of braconid parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea): A simultaneous molecular and morphological Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 38(1): 130-145.

Yu, D.S., Achterberg, van C. & Horstman, K. 2012. Taxapad 2012, World Ichneumonoidea 2011. Taxonomy, biology, morphology and distribution. Database on flash-drive. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. www.taxapad.com


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa) or Yves Braet or Mike Sharkey (University of Kentucky) or © Kees van Achterberg (Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden) or Pascal Rousse (Iziko South African Musuem) or by Agničle Touret-Alby © MNHN, Visit the MNHN database http://coldb.mnhn.fr

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2021. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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